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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 99-103

Pharmacognostical and preliminary physicochemical profiles of Navaka Guggulu


1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, G J Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Pharmacognocy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 Department of Rasashatra and Bhaishajya Kalpana Including Drug Research, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication14-Apr-2016

Correspondence Address:
Kruti Yagneshkumar Vyas
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, G J Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research, New Vallabha Vidhyanagar Anand, Jamnagar, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2278-344X.180422

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Guggulu (Commiphora wightii, [Arn] Bhandari) is a common herbal source in many Ayurvedic preparations. Navaka Guggulu (NG) is one among them. It is useful in Medoroga (hyperlipidaemia), Sthaulya (obesity), and Kaphaja roga (diseases due to Kapha). Though it is an important formulation, reports on physicochemical profile of NG are a few. Hence, an attempt has been made to evaluate pharmacognostical and preliminary physicochemical parameters of NG through relevant parameters. Materials and Methods: NG was evaluated on the basis of powder microscopy and analytical parameters such as pH, acid value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extract, methanol extract, volatile content, and high-performance thin layer chromatography. Results: NG exhibits a set of diagnostic characters of its ingredients such as bottleneck-shaped stone cell of Pippali, trichome of Bibhitaki, and mesocarp cell of Vidanga, which will help to identify finished product.

Keywords: Commiphora wightii, Guggulu, Navaka Guggulu


How to cite this article:
Vyas KY, Harisha C R, Vinay J S, Ruknuddin G, Prajapati PK. Pharmacognostical and preliminary physicochemical profiles of Navaka Guggulu. Int J Health Allied Sci 2016;5:99-103

How to cite this URL:
Vyas KY, Harisha C R, Vinay J S, Ruknuddin G, Prajapati PK. Pharmacognostical and preliminary physicochemical profiles of Navaka Guggulu. Int J Health Allied Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Sep 16];5:99-103. Available from: http://www.ijhas.in/text.asp?2016/5/2/99/180422


  Introduction Top


Guggulu - an exudate of Commiphora wightii (Arn) Bhandari - is widely used in many Ayurvedic medicinal preparations commonly known as Guggulu Kalpanas such as Navaka Guggulu (NG), Yogaraja Guggulu, Simhanada Guggulu, Tryodasanga Guggulu, Triphala Guggulu, Laksha Guggulu, Vatari Guggulu, and Goksuradi Guggulu. These formulations are increasingly being used to treat various conditions and disorders including Amavata (rheumatism), Vataroga (neurological disorders), Medoroga (obesity and related complications), Firanga (syphilis), Shwasa (bronchitis), and Kushta (skin diseases).[1]

NG, a polyherbal formulation, is useful in Medoroga (hyperlipidemia), Sthaulya (Obesity), and Kaphaja roga (diseases due to Kapha).[2] Same formulation also named as Vyoshadi Guggulu,[3]Dashanga Guggulu,[4] and Trushnadi Guggulu[5] in different classics. This formulation is also reported for its effective anti-obesity activity.[6] The quality of a medicinal product is determined by its content of active substance(s), its purity and its organoleptic, physicochemical profiles.[7] The characteristics of materials are judged subjectively and substitutes or adulterants may closely resemble the genuine material, it is often necessary to substantiate the findings by microscopy and/or physicochemical analysis.[8] Therefore, it is also a need to asses finished product as well as crude drugs for the quality assurance.

Physicochemical profile of NG is reported earlier, where Triphala shodhita Guggulu was used in the preparation.[9] While in current attempt, Gomutra shodhita Guggulu is used to increase the therapeutic efficacy and Goghrita was not used in the preparation. As analytical profiles of NG prepared with Gomutra shodhita Guggulu is not available, an attempt has been made to evaluate pharmacognostical and preliminary physicochemical profiles in the current attempt.


  Material and Methods Top


Collection of raw materials

Raw drugs such as Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Bibhitaki (Terminalia belerica Roxb.), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn.), Sunthi (Zingiber officinale Roxb.) Maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.), and Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm.) were procured from the Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in January 2014 Ashudhdha Guggulu were procured from Gujarat State Forest Development Corp. Ltd., Vadodara, in January 2014. The ingredients and the part used are given in [Table 1]. All ingredients were authenticated by the Pharmacognosist, GAU, Jamnagar for their genuinity.
Table 1: Formulation composition of Navaka Guggulu

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Methods of preparation of Navaka Guggulu

NG was prepared by following classical reference.[2] Physical impurities were manually removed from raw sample of Guggulu. Guggulu Shodhana was done by swedana (boiling) in Gomutra (Cow's urine).[10] For Shodhana procedure, 1 part of Guggulu gum were grounded in small pieces and then four part of fresh cow's urine was added to it. After complete dissolution of Guggulu by heating it at 75–80°C temperature, it was filtered through cotton cloth. The filtrate was again subjected to heating for evaporation of water content. After getting semisolid consistency, collected mass was dried in oven at 50°C. Other plant ingredients enlisted in [Table 1] were powdered (80#) separately and mixed together in equal amount. Shodhita Guggulu was taken in equal amount of this powder mixture, and homogenous mass was made by adding that powders little by little in it. This homogeneous mass was subjected to pill cutting machine. Pills were dried in oven at 40°C.

Pharmacognostical evaluation

Pharmacognostical analysis of NG comprises organoleptic characters (i.e., color, odor, taste and texture) and microscopic studies. Small Quantity of NG was dissolved in distilled water, filtered through filter paper. The precipitate was treated with and without stain to find out the lignified material along with other cellular components. These findings were compared with the characters of individual components of NG. The microphotographs were taken under Carl Zeiss Trinocular microscope attached with camera.[11],[12]

Physicochemical evaluation

NG was analyzed through relevant physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extract, methanol soluble extract, pH value, volatile oil content, uniformity of weight, hardness, and disintegration time.[12],[13],[14] High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was carried out with methanolic extract of NG.[15]

High-performance thin layer chromatography

Five grams of drug was extracted with methanol by soxlate extract method. It was then combined with methanol to adjust the volume to 25 ml. A CAMAG (Muttenz, Switzerland; Version 1.2.1) HPTLC system equipped with a sample applicator Linomat V was used for the application of samples. CAMAG TLC Scanner 3, Reprostar and Wincats 4.02 (Muttenz, Switzerland) were used for scanning the plates. CAMAG twin through glass chamber was used for developing the plates. Precoated silica gel GF 254 plate was used as stationary phase. Petroleum ether (60–80°C):ethyl acetate:methanol (6:2:0.5) v/v was used as a mobile phase as per reference of ICMR database.[16] After 30 min of chamber saturation, plate was developed, and then scanned under short ultraviolet (UV) (254 nm) and long UV (366 nm).


  Results and Discussion Top


Organoleptic study

Organoleptic features of NG were observed like Blackish brown in color, mixed odor of Gomutra and Guggulu, bitter-astringent in taste and solid consistency with smooth surface [Table 2].
Table 2: Organoleptic characteristics of Navaka Guggulu

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Pharmacognostical evaluation

Detailed pharmacognostical evaluation was carried out for all the ingredients of NG. Microscopic study was done to indentify the presence of characteristics of ingredients and probable changes in features if any. Microscopic characteristics of ingredients were identified in NG also [Table 3]. Microphotographs are exposed in [Figure 1].
Table 3: Microscopic characteristics of Navaka Guggulu

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Figure 1: Microscopic characteristics of Navaka Guggulu

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Physicochemical parameters

NG was tested for relevant physical and chemical parameters [Table 4]. Loss on drying at 110°C was found more (i.e., 10.34%) than normal limits. It may due to Shodhana procedure in Gomutra. Ash value and acid insoluble as are found to be close to or within standard ranges/values.[17] Extractive values of NG were found 29.87% and 14.19%, respectively. As there are no pharmacopeal standards available, these values are compared with previous reported work on NG [9] and found difference which may due to Shodhana media and preparation method which was used for this work were different from that reported work pH, and volatile content were found 4.5 and 0.99%. Guggulu,[18]Maricha, Pippali,[19]Shunthi,[20] and Vidanga[21] possess volatile contents. However, due to pharmaceutical processes such as heating and grinding, volatile content may found less here. Hardness was found 4.5 kg/cm 2 which is less than other Guggulu containing tablets. It may be due to Shodhana process in Gomutra. The disintegration time of pills plays an important role in quality assessment. Rate of drug dissolution depends upon the time of disintegration which affects the absorption rate of drug.[22] Disintegration time of NG was found 56 min. Guggulu formulations have very high disintegration time.[23] So disintegration time of 56 min is acceptable. Uniformity of weight is determined to eliminate variation in dose. Here, permissible weight variation (±5%) was found with NG.
Table 4: Physicochemical parameters of Navaka Guggulu

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High-performance thin layer chromatography

In HPTLC study, methanolic extract of NG showed 12 numbers of spots at 254 nm wavelength and 10 spots at 366 nm wavelength [Table 5] and [Figure 2]. Number of spots indicates its possible compounds of the matrix which may possess its therapeutic effect.
Table 5: Chromatographic separation of methanolic extract of Navaka Guggulu on silica gel GF254

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Figure 2: High-performance thin layer chromatography profile of Navaka Guggulu. (a) Chromatographic separation of sample. (b) Chromatographic separation at short UV 254 nm. (c) Chromatographic separation at long ultraviolet 366nm

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  Conclusion Top


NG exhibits a set of diagnostic characters of its ingredients exhibit specific characters such as bottleneck-shaped stone cell of Pippali, trichome of Bibhitaki, and mesocarp cell of Vidanga showed the purity and genuinity of the finished product. Physicochemical profiling also within limit range and it can be considered as a standard for future research studies.

Financial support and sponsorship

IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

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Acharya YT, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Sutra Sthana 15/32. Nibandhasmgraha Commentary by Dalhanacharya. Varanasi: Chokhambha Surbharti Prakashan; 2003. p. 73.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Dwivedi R, editor. Chakrapanidutta, Chakradatta, Sthaulya Chi. 36/18, Vaidhya Prabha Hindi Commentary by Indradeva Tripathi. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrita Bhavana; Reprint 2011. p. 222.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Bhatt AD, Dalal DG, Shah SJ, Joshi BA, Gajjar MN, Vaidya RA, et al. Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: Data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. J Postgrad Med 1995;41:5-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
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Gopala Simha KR, Laxminarayana V. Standardization of Navaka Guggulu – An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2008;7:542-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Guggulu. In: Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part-2. 2nd ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of ISM and H, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2003. p. 58.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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CCRAS. Parameters for qualitative assessment of Ayurveda and Siddha drugs, Part A. New Delhi: CCRAS; 2005. p. 31.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Stahl E. Thin Layer Chromatography a Laboratory Hand Book. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1969. p. 125-41.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Soni V, Swarnkar PL. Conservation strategies for Commiphora wightii. An important medicinal plant species. In: Medicinal Plant Conversation. Vol. 12. Newsletter of the Medicinal Plant Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN; November, 2006. p. 40.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Hasselstrom T, Hewitt EJ, Konigsbacher KS, Ritter JJ. Pepper analysis, composition of volatile oil of black pepper, Piper nigrum. J Agric Food Chem 1957;5:53-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Kizhakkayil J, Sasikumar B. Characterization of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) germplasm based on volatile and non-volatile components. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:777-86.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
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Khan IM, Ahmed A, Akram M, Mohiuddin E, Khan U, Sultan A, et al. Monograph of Embelia ribes. Afr J Plant Sci 2010;4:503-5.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Gupta AK. Tablets. In: Introduction to Pharmaceutics. Part-I. 3rd ed., Ch. 14. Delhi: CBS Publication & Distributions; Reprint 2008. p. 272.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Chaube A, Dixit SK, Sharma PV. On improving the disintegration of ayurvedic pills containing Guggulu. Anc Sci Life 1995;14:161-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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