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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-162

Adansonia digitata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced cerebello-pituitary dysfunction in adult male Wistar rats


1 Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
2 Department of Physiology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
3 Department of Anesthesia, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
4 Department of Anatomy, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication9-Aug-2017

Correspondence Address:
Oyetunji Adeoye Oyewopo
College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515 Ilorin
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_176_16

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  Abstract 


Background: The use of Adansonia digitata (AD) as a multipurpose tree is gaining worldwide acceptance, and it is readily available in many parts of Africa and other parts of the world. Several functions of AD are well documented, but little is known on the neuroprotective effect of AD. We hereby hypothesize that administration of AD would ameliorate carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cerebellar and pituitary gland dysfunction.
Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into groups; control (vehicle; received 1 ml of distilled water), AD- treated (received 500 mg/kg b.w.), CCl4-treated (received 2.5 mg/kg b.w. and AD + CCl4-treated. CCl4was administered for 2 days p.o., thereafter AD fruit pulp was given to the AD-and AD + CCl4-treated groups p.o. for 17 days. The body weight change was monitored using animal weighing balance (Olympia SCL66110 Model, Kent Scientific Corporation, Torrington, CT06790, USA), biochemical assay, histology of cerebellum, and pituitary glands were performed.
Results: The results show a significant decrease in body weight gain and distortion in the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and pituitary gland of the group treated with CCl4when compared to the control group. These alterations were associated with increased oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) and decreased gonadotropic hormones. Administration of AD fruit pulp significantly restored the effect of CCl4in the AD + CCl4-treated group.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that administration of AD ameliorates CCl4-induced cerebellum and pituitary gland dysfunction. This might be due to its antioxidative effect and enhancement of gonadotropic hormone secretion.

Keywords: Adansonia digitata, antioxidative, cerebellum, cytoarchitecture, neuroprotective, pituitary gland


How to cite this article:
Oyewopo OA, Olaniyi KS, Oyewopo CI, Morakinyo A O. Adansonia digitata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced cerebello-pituitary dysfunction in adult male Wistar rats. Int J Health Allied Sci 2017;6:158-62

How to cite this URL:
Oyewopo OA, Olaniyi KS, Oyewopo CI, Morakinyo A O. Adansonia digitata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced cerebello-pituitary dysfunction in adult male Wistar rats. Int J Health Allied Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Aug 5];6:158-62. Available from: http://www.ijhas.in/text.asp?2017/6/3/158/212593




  Introduction Top


Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication in various studies has demonstrated that CCl4 causes free radical generation in many tissues such as liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain, and blood. The toxicity of CCl4 probably depends on the formation of the trichloromethyl radical (CCl3), which in the presence of oxygen interacts with it to form the more toxic trichloromethyl peroxy radical (CCl3O2).[1] It has also been found to cause induced oxidative stress in the brain, testes, and erythrocytes of rats.[2]

Many African countries are endowed with a range of edaphoclimatic conditions that favors the growth of many plant species, most of which are adapted to specific ecological zones, among these plant is the baobab.[3] Freshly young leaves have a protein content of 4% and are rich in Vitamins A and C. Baobab leaf has been reported as an excellent source of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese molybdenum, phosphorus, and zinc.[3] This means that in terms of both quality and quantity, baobab leaf can serve as a significant protein and mineral source for those populations for whom it is a stable food.[3],[4]Adansonia digitata (AD) has a wide range of uses, not only as food and beverage but also medicinally to treat fevers and dysentery.[4] In recent years, there has been an upsurge of interest in the development of baobab fruits as a botanical dietary supplement in the United States. The fruit pulp affords high levels of Vitamin C (range 2.8–3 g/kg) and has also been documented as having high antioxidant potency.[5] An aqueous extract of A. digitata fruit pulp has shown anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rat models, but at quite a high dose range (400–800 mg/kg, p.o.).[4] The various plant parts of baobab have been subjected to relatively few studies phytochemically, and for example, a number of proanthocyanidins of the previously known structure were reported as major constituents from an 80% methanol extract of the fruit pulp.[6] The acute toxicity of baobab fruit pulp extract was tested in vivo on rats and the results showed that the LD50 was 8000 mg/kg following parenteral administration suggesting low toxicity.[4]

AD fruit produce a remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. This effect could be as a result due to the presence of sterols, saponins, and triterpenes in the fruit pulp.[7] The fruit pulp and seed also exhibit antipyretic activity.[8] The antipyretic activity resembles that normally induced by standard dose of administered acetylsalicyclic acid in hyperthermic rats.[9]

The concept that CCl4-induced brain damage is mediated through the oxidative pathway and that AD exhibits anti-oxidative properties have earlier been reported.[10] However, the neuroprotective effect of AD has not been documented. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AD on CCl4-induced cerebellum and pituitary gland dysfunction in male Wistar rats.


  Materials And Methods Top


Animals, grouping, and protocol

Twenty matured male Wistar rats weighing 100–150 g were obtained from the College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The rats were housed in wire mesh cages and maintained in a well ventilated room at 25°C ± 2°C, on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. Rats had unrestricted access to standard rat chow and tap water. After acclimatized for 2 weeks, the animals were randomly allotted to control (vehicle; received 1 ml of distilled water), AD-treated (received 500 mg/kg b.w.), CCl4-treated (received 2.5 mg/kg b.w.) and AD + CCl4-treated. CCl4 was administered for 2 days p.o., thereafter AD fruit pulp was given to the AD-and AD + CCl4-treated groups p.o. for 17 days. The investigation was conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of University of Ilorin, and every effort was made to minimize both the number of animals used and their suffering. Initial and final body weights were monitored using animal weighing balance (Olympia SCL66110 Model, Kent Scientific Corporation, Torrington, CT06790, USA) and the body weight gain was estimated.

Plant material and extract preparation

The fruit of AD was gotten from the University of Ilorin premises, Ilorin, Kwara State, identification and authentication (UIHV43) was done by a plant biologist; Mr Boluwatife Ajayi from the Department of Plant Biology in the same university.

Sample preparation, biochemical, and histological examination

At the end of treatment, the rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg, i.p). Blood was collected from the apex of the heart into the heparinized bottle and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min using a bench centrifuge, and the plasma was stored frozen until it was needed for biochemical assay. Biochemical analysis of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and gonadotropic hormones (follicle stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) were measured by standardized enzymatic colorimetric methods using assay kit obtained from Randox Laboratory Ltd. (Co. Antrim, UK), and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kits from Fortress Diagnostics, respectively.

The cerebella and pituitary glands were excised, blotted, and weighed. After weighing, the cerebella and pituitary glands were fixed in 10% buffered formal saline for histological examination using hematoxylin and eosin staining technique.

Statistical analysis

All data were expressed as means ± standard error of the mean. Statistical group analysis was performed with SPSS, version 22 of statistical software. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean values of variables among the groups. Bonferroni's test was used to identify the significance of pairwise comparison of mean values among the groups. Statistically significant differences were accepted at P< 0.05.


  Results Top


Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on body weight of male Wistar rats

Treatment with CCl4 significantly reduced body weight gain when compared with control group. However, administration of AD significantly improved the body weight gain [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on body weight of male Wistar rats. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (n = 5). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc test (*P < 0.05 vs. control, #P < 0.05 vs. carbon tetrachloride)

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Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on morphometrical changes in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats

[Table 1] depicts morphometrical changes in the cerebellum of the rats and deviation of morphometrical parameters from the control group is an indication of altered cerebellar function. Treatment with CCl4 significantly decreased cerebellar weight but not cerebellar length, breath, and crown length when compared with control group. Administration of AD significantly improved cerebellar weight.
Table 1: Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on morphometrical changes in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats

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Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on the histology of cerebellum in male rats

Histological changes in the cerebella have been reported to affect the functionality of this salient part of the brain. The current histological study showed distortion of molecular layer, granular layer and absence of purkinje cells in CCl4-treated group, whereas AD + CCl4-treated group showed improvement of molecular layer, granular layer, and dispersed purkinje cells [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on the histology of cerebellum in male rats. Molecular layer; granular layer; Purkinje cells. Control rat, shows normal molecular layer, densely packed granular cells and mono layer of purkinje cells (a), Adansonia digitata-treated rats, shows normal molecular layer, densely packed granular cells, and mono layer of purkinje cells (b), carbon tetrachloride-treated rat, shows distortion of molecular layer, granular layer, and absence of purkinje cells (c) and Adansonia digitata + carbon tetrachloride-treated rat, shows improvement of molecular layer, granular layer and dispersed purkinje cells (d) (H and E, ×200, transverse section)

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Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on the histology of pituitary gland in male rats

Histological changes in the pituitary gland have been reported as an indication of pituitary gland dysfunction. The current histological study showed cellular degeneration and scanty acidophil, basophil and many nongranular chromophobe cells in CCl4-treated group while AD + CCl4-treated group showed evenly distributed acidophil, basophil, and granular chromophobe cells [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on the histology of pituitary gland in male rats. Control rat, shows normal proportions of acidophil, basophil and chromophobe cells (a), Adansonia digitata-treated rats, shows normal proportions of acidophil, basophil, and chromophobe cells (b), carbon tetrachloride-treated rat, shows scanty acidophil, basophil, and many nongranular chromophobe cells (c) and Adansonia digitata + carbon tetrachloride-treated rat, shows evenly distributed acidophil, basophil, and granular chromophobe cells (d) (H and E, ×200, transverse section)

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Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde concentration) in male rats

Administration of CCl4 significantly increased MDA concentration when compared with control groups. However, treatment with AD significantly decreased MDA concentration [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on malondialdehyde concentration in male Wistar rats. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (n = 5). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc test (*P < 0.05 vs. control, #P < 0.05 vs. carbon tetrachloride)

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Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on gonadotropic hormones (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) in male rats

Sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH) significantly decreased in CCl4-treated group when compared with control group. However, AD treatment significantly restored FSH and LH levels [Figure 5].
Figure 5: Effect of administration of Adansonia digitata and carbon tetrachloride on follicle stimulating hormone (a) and luteinizing hormone (b) concentration in male Wistar rats. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (n = 5). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni pos thoc test (*P < 0.05 vs. control, #P < 0.05 vs. carbon tetrachloride)

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  Discussion Top


The present study showed that administration of CCl4 led to decrease in body weight gain, cerebellar weight but not cerebellar length, breath, and crown length when compared with control group. In addition, the treatment led to distortion of molecular layer, granular layer and absence of purkinje cells in the histology of cerebellum, cellular degeneration and scanty acidophil, basophil, and many nongranular chromophobe cells in the histology of pituitary glands. These changes were associated with increased plasma MDA concentration and decreased gonadotropic hormone. However, treatment with AD significantly restored body weight gain, cerebellar weight, cerebellar, and pituitary gland cytoarchitectural distortions. These effects were also associated with decreased plasma MDA concentration and increased gonadotropic hormone.

The present results that administration of CCl4 causes a decrease in body weight gain, cerebellar and pituitary gland distortion are in consonance with previous studies that CCl4 consumption is toxic to the brain.[2] Increased concentration of circulating MDA (oxidative stress marker) observed in the present study is an indication of oxidative stress, which implies that CCl4-induced cerebellar and pituitary glands degeneration are through oxidative stress. This finding provides further evidence to previous studies that increased MDA concentration induces lipid peroxidation of the cellular membrane which damages the cell plasma membrane and results in cell death, and thus, high lipid peroxidation alters cerebellum and pituitary gland function.[1],[11] Earlier studies have shown that consumption of AD has some beneficial and medicinal effects on the body.[3],[12],[13] The current study shows that AD improves the structure and functions of the cerebellum and pituitary gland. Administration of AD at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. reverses the alterations in the structure or function of cerebellum and pituitary glands.

Furthermore, the pituitary glands secrete gonadotropic hormones and are linked together as gonado-pituitary axis in endocrine and reproductive biology. Our present result showed that the pituitary glands distortion observed in the group treated with CCl4 was associated with decreased circulating FSH and LH and administration of AD restored significantly the circulating levels of FSH and LH [Figure 5]. This implies that AD enhances gonado-pituitary functions.

The integrity of the cells and tissues of the pituitary gland and cerebellum were significantly altered in the CCl4-treated group. However, the administration of AD ameliorates the cellular alterations in the structures of pituitary glands and cerebellum. In the cerebellum, punkinje layer which exhibits electrophysiological activity was absent in the CCl4-treated group, and similar observation has earlier been reported that absence of purkinje cells in the cerebellum could result to genetic mutations, spinocerebellar ataxias, and neurodegenerative diseases in animal subjects.[14],[15]


  Conclusion Top


This study demonstrates that administration of AD ameliorates CCl4-induced cerebellum and pituitary gland dysfunction. This might be due to its antioxidative effect and enhancement of gonadotropic hormone secretion.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Soliman WS, Fujimo M, Tase K, Sugiyama S. Oxidative stress and physiological damage under prolonged heat stress in C3 grass Lolium perenne. Grass Sci 2011;57:101-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Gebauer J, El-Siddig E, Ebert G. Baobab (Adansonia digitata). A review on a multipurpose tree with a promising future in Sudan. Gartenbauwissenschaft 2002;67:155-60.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Kaboré D, Sawadogo-Lingani H, Diawar B, Compaoré CS, Dicko MH, Jakobsen M. A review of baobab (Adansonia digitata) products: Effect of processing techniques, medicinal properties and uses. Afr J Food Sci 2011;5:833-44.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Selvarani V, Hudson B. Multiple inflammatory and antiviral activities in Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves, fruits and seeds. J Med Plants Res 2009;8:576-82.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Ramadan AA, Abdel-Rahman RM, El-Behairy MA, Ismail AI, Mahmoud MM. Thermodynamics of complexation of transition and lanthanide ions by 3 – (a- carboxymethylaminebenzylidene hydrazino)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4- triazine. Thermochim Acta 1993;222:291-303.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Karumi Y, Augustine A, Umar I. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata leaf on ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. J Biol Sci 2008;6:225-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Ogeturk M, Kus I, Colakoglu N, Zararsiz I, Ilhan N, Sarsilmaz M. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects kidneys against carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:273-80.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Afolabi OR, Popoola TO. The effects of baobab pulp powder on the micro flora involved in tempe fermentation. Eur Food Res Technol 2009;220:187-90.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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De Caluwé E, Halamová K, Van Damme P. Adansonia digitata L. – A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Afr Focus 2010;23:11-51.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Gregor M, Lang M. Carbon tetrachloride: Genetic effects and other modes of action. Acta Scand 2008;8:181-95.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Geidam M, Ibrahim A, Maimusa A, Inusah M. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of (Linn) on biochemical parameters in normal and alcohol fed rats. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2011;2:777-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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