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CASE REPORTS
Penile acrochordon: An unusual site of presentation- A case report and review of the literature
Yadalla Hari Kishan Kumar, C Sujatha, H Ambika, S Seema
April-June 2012, 1(2):122-125
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.101719  
Acrochordons are flesh-colored pedunculated lesions which occur in areas of skin folds. Although they are common in other sites of the body, herein we describe a case of acrochordon at an unusual site over the tip of glans penis which is a rarity. We report this case for its rarity, as there have been no similar reports and paucity of literature after extensive research according to our knowledge. Clinical presentation and pathological findings are presented and discussed.
  17,628 278 1
Non-traumatic, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema: Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma
K Venugopal, Mallikarjun M Reddy, YM Bharathraj, Jaligidad Kadappa
April-June 2015, 4(2):97-99
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.154910  
Subcutaneous emphysema is not an uncommon condition and occurs following a chest injury or surgical procedures. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema (SSE) is a rare entity, it usually present when broncho-alveolar walls are weakened by chronic lung pathology and precipitated by chronic cough. Most widely accepted mechanism is rupture of broncho-alveolar walls with escape of air into the subcutaneous plane. Usually, it will be associated with pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. However, its occurrence without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum has been reported in the literature. We report a case of 46 years male presented with a history of cough of 1-month duration with swelling over the face, neck and upper part of the chest. The diagnosis of SSE without pneumothorax secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis was made by examination, confirmed by chest X-ray and computed tomography imaging. The probable mechanism in our patient could be due to the existence of pleural adhesions surrounded the point of rupture.
  14,761 502 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Percutaneous K-wire fixation of distal radius fractures: Our results of leaving the wire outside
KT Madhukar, G Gopalkrishna, Jobin Alex Mohan
January-March 2013, 2(1):23-29
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.110571  
Background: Distal radius fracture is one of the common injuries seen in casualty often managed by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Aim: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the incidence of infection following percutaneous wire fixation of distal radius fractures and it's bearing on the outcome in the management of distal radius fractures. Materials and Methods: We studied eighty-eight cases of closed distal end radius fractures managed with closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wires (K-wires) fixation with splinting for pintract infection. Results: Out of the 88 cases included in the study, 14 cases had pintract infections that were mild to moderate in nature. In 6 cases of early K-wire removal due to pintract infection, shortening of radius, malunion, reduced finger grip and poor functional outcome was noticed. Pintract infections resulted in extended hospital stay, early pin removal, decreased functional outcome, malunion of distal radius and requirement of second surgery to correct the deformity and to improve functional outcome. However, percutaneous K-wire fixation with keeping the wire outside has been advocated and routinely performed, though incidence of pintract infection and complications arising from early removal of K-wires cannot be ignored. Conclusion: Therefore, our study proposes to bury the pin ends under the skin to reduce complications and to achieve better functional outcomes.
  14,764 462 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
The cochlear implantation surgery: A review of anesthetic considerations and implications
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Ashish Kulshrestha
October-December 2013, 2(4):225-229
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.126698  
The advancement in the technology of the cochlear implants has resulted in increasing trend of cochlear implantation in both the children and elderly population. The anesthesiologist is faced with the task of smoothly conducting the surgery without any interference in the stimulation techniques used. The preoperative evaluation is mainly focused on the presence of any congenital anomalies in these patients which may affect anesthetic technique. The reduction of anxiety of the patient as well as the parents of small children is an important aspect of the preoperative visit. Intraoperatively the anesthetic technique chosen should not interfere with the stimulation of the cochlear implant electrode assembly. The postoperative management is mainly focused at prevention of agitation and good analgesia. A close cooperation between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist is essential for a positive outcome in this surgery. The current review focuses on the important anesthesia aspects related to cochlear implant surgery.
  12,711 1,984 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery and targeting: A comprehensive review
Natarajan Jawahar, SN Meyyanathan
October-December 2012, 1(4):217-223
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.107832  
In the recent years, many modern technologies have been established in the pharmaceutical research and development area. The field of nanotechnology has been revolutionary as substantial and technical, and scientific growth, in basic sciences plus manipulation by physical or chemical process of individual atoms and molecules have widened its horizon. Polymeric nanoparticles with a size in the nanometer range protect drugs against in vitro and in vivo degradation; it releases the drug in a controlled manner and also offers the possibility of drug targeting. The use of polymeric drug nanoparticles is a universal approach to increase the therapeutic performance of poorly soluble drugs in any route of administration. The present review discusses the physico-chemical properties of polymeric nanoparticles, production methods, routes of administration and potential therapeutic applications.
  11,890 2,352 30
Nutraceuticals and their medicinal importance
Sakthivel Lakshmana Prabu, Timmakondu Narasimman Kuppusami Suriyaprakash, Chellappan Dinesh Kumar, Subramaniam Suresh Kumar
April-June 2012, 1(2):47-53
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.101661  
Lifestyles of human beings have changed drastically due to the industrial age, increasing work, living speed, longer work schedules, and various psychological pressures, which have led to an increased incidence of diabetes, obesity, various cancers and vascular diseases. With recent advances in medical and nutrition sciences, natural products and health-promoting foods have received extensive attention in the public. To achieve better quality of life, people started eating more vegetables, fruits, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, phytotherapeutical substances and other plant foods. The demand for nutraceuticals and phytonutrients has increased over the past few years and they are being used by people for various therapeutic outcomes. This article brings out the importance of nutraceuticals and their usage in various diseases and ailments.
  11,749 1,015 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Breastfeeding practices among lactating mothers: Problems and prospects in a cross-sectional study
Jeetender Singh, DG Vishakantamurthy, PM Charan
April-June 2012, 1(2):54-58
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.101663  
Context : Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in Mysore city. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe and explain the factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Mysore city, and the secondary objective was to compare the breastfeeding practices of lactating mothers attending well baby clinic (A clinic run by pediatric specialist in good hospitals) with their selected personal variables. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at selected hospitals of Mysore city from January 2009 to June 2009 for the period of six months. Materials and Methods: Lactating mothers having at least a single infant attending well baby clinic at selected hospitals were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Results: Our study shows 74.29% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, more than 50% used pre-lacteal feeds, 36% had discarded the colostrum and the majority of mothers had followed hygienic practices while feeding their child. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.
  10,843 927 1
CASE REPORTS
Non-rigid connector in fixed partial dentures with pier abutment: An enigma simplified
Prince Kumar, Vishal Singh, Roshni Goel, Harkanwal P Singh
July-September 2012, 1(3):190-193
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.105086  
In the fixed partial denture (FPD) prosthesis with rigid connectors, forces of mastication are transmitted to the terminal retainers, which make the middle abutment act as a class I lever fulcrum. This techno-clinical cycle often causes failure of the fixed partial dentures. To overcome this dilemma, a non-rigid connector may be incorporated on the distal aspect of the middle (pier) abutment. The non-rigid connector counterbalances the effects of these forces of leverage. This clinical report presents the use of a non-rigid connector in a long-span, five-unit FPD, replacing two missing teeth with an intermediate pier abutment.
  9,538 1,015 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Difference in effect between ischemic compression and muscle energy technique on upper trepezius myofascial trigger points: Comparative study
Gopal S Nambi, Ronak Sharma, Dipika Inbasekaran, Apeksha Vaghesiya, Urmi Bhatt
January-March 2013, 2(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.110570  
Background: Myofascial trigger point (MTrP) is a hyperirritable point or spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or in the muscle fascia which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic-referred pain and motor dysfunction. Studies suggest that various types of massage forms are available for treating MTrPs. Aims: To find the difference in effect of two forms of massage techniques: Ischemic compression and muscle energy technique (MET) on upper trepezius MTrPs. Settings and Design: Quasi experimental design was conducted with convenient sampling method. Materials and Methods: Patients ( n = 30) who fulfil the screening criteria were randomly assigned to Group A ( n = 15) treated with ischemic compression and ultrasound and Group B ( n = 15) treated with MET and ultrasound for 4 weeks and they were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Outcome measures included pain intensity by visual analog scale (VAS) and range of motion by universal goniometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup analysis was done with Mann-Whitney test and intragroup analysis was done with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Statistically, no significant ( P > 0.05) changes in the scores were found in the Groups A and B for VAS, and statistically significant ( P < 0.05) changes in the scores were found in the Groups A and B for Range of Motion (ROM) with greater change scores in the Group B compared with Group A. Conclusion: Treatment program consisting of MET with ultrasound may be more effective in reducing pain and improve ROM in patients in upper trepezius MTrPs.
  8,475 1,355 4
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers
A Mooventhan
January-March 2016, 5(1):53-56
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.173880  
Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA) to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control) and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse rate (PR) was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP), rate pressure product (RPP), and double product (Do-P) were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.
  9,519 270 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Levocetirizine dihydrochloride and ambroxol hydrochloride oral soluble films: Design, optimization, and patient compliance study on healthy volunteers
V Senthil, Rizwan Basha Khatwal, Varun Rathi, Siddhartha T Venkata
October-December 2013, 2(4):246-255
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.126713  
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop taste masked oral soluble films (OSFs) for levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LCT) and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) using different combination of polymers such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K30, propylene glycol (PG), gelatin, sodium alginate (SA), pectin, gaur gum (GG), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K15M and super disintegrants like carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG). Materials and Methods: The different basic formulations were developed using solvent casting method for with and without drugs loading and prepared films were evaluated different morphological and mechanical parameters facilitated the screening of a formulation with best characteristics. Results: The films made from HPMC K15M (42.2% w/w) and pectin (35.2% w/w) and considered as an optimized batch among the other formulations. The addition of (titanium dioxide) (TiO 2 ) films was shown opaque nature. The optimized films were subjected to further of drugs content, drugs release profile, stability, and organoleptic properties by human volunteers. The percentage release at end of 90 th s found 73.11 ± 5.2% in pH 6.0 and 81.07 ± 5.6% in water for LCT and 89.2 ± 4.5% in pH 6.0 and 86.22 ± 4.2% in water for AMB, respectively and there were insignificant changes showed at stability study. The organoleptic properties revealed that by complexing drugs with hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) in 1:1.5 ratios masked the bitter taste of drugs. Conclusion: Developed OSFs can be considered as one of the promising formulation to administer bitter drugs such as LCT and AMB especially for pediatric, geriatric, and non-cooperative patients.
  8,963 449 1
A study of bone marrow iron storage in hematological disorder
Krupal M Pujara, Rohit V Bhalara, Gauravi A Dhruva
October-December 2014, 3(4):221-224
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.143052  
Background: Study of marrow in iron deficiency anemia is very much essential, and it helps to decide whether iron therapy would be of any use or not. Where sophisticated instruments and facilities are not available for measuring iron in the blood by chemical method, this simple technique, is efficient, cost-effective, and result oriented. Aim: The aim was to study the marrow finding in various blood disorders. To establish the fact "old is gold" as "bone marrow iron store by Prussian blue stain" still has its stand in hematology in era of genetic engineering markers study and ferrokinetic study. Materials and Methods: Bone marrow aspiration was performed in 73 patients. Marrow films were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain, observed and then submitted for Prussian blue stain. Results: In a study of iron deficiency anemia 92.7% of cases received iron store grade in marrow in range of 0-1 (P = 0.001). In megaloblastic anemia, 70% of cases received in the range of 3-4 (P = 0.164), whereas all cases of dimorphic anemia received in the range of 2-3 (P = 0.000) when compared to the normal range of 1-2. Conclusion: Prussian blue stain is simple and helpful technique to see and measure body iron store semi-quantitatively. Furthermore, it helps to decide whether iron therapy would be useful or not.
  8,655 560 2
Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among rural women in Tamil Nadu
Shankar Radhakrishnan, S Sangeetha Balamuruga
April-June 2012, 1(2):64-67
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.101667  
Background: Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Various studies have shown that infant feeding could be influenced by socioeconomic status, maternal education, place of living and many other factors. Hence a prevalence study on exclusive breastfeeding was conducted in rural Tamil Nadu. Aim and Objective: To assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices and the factors influencing them among women in a rural area in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Attyampatti Panchyat Union, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, from March 2011-June 2011. All the 291 children in the age group of six months to two years in Attyampatti Panchayat Union were included in the study, irrespective of any sample. The data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results: Among the study population 52.6% were male children and 47.4% were females. Only 99 (34%) children were exclusively breastfed for six months. The majority of women (60.5%) initiated breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery. Various demographic factors like the education of the mother, type of delivery, type of family, occupation, number of children, monthly income, family size, age at marriage and religion had a direct influence on exclusive breastfeeding, which in turn influenced the weight of the baby and immune status of the child. Most of the mothers (44.7%) inferred that the main reason for giving bottle feed is because of inadequate breast milk secretion. Conclusion: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is low in this particular area. Hence promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and focus on the factors affecting them is highly warranted in this area.
  8,041 952 7
EDITORIAL
The role of higher education in empowering Indian women
Nilani Packianathan, SM Anushree, B Manjunatha
July-September 2016, 5(3):135-137
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.187791  
  8,160 736 -
CASE REPORTS
Ayurvedic management of cervical spondylosis radiculopathy
Archana Kushwaha, Sarvesh Kumar Singh, Kshipra Rajoria
April-June 2018, 7(2):104-109
DOI:10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_139_1  
Radiculopathy, commonly referred as pinched nerve, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and their functioning is hampered. This phenomenon is termed as neuropathy. This can result in pain or more precisely in radicular pain. In a radiculopathy, the problem occurs at or near the root of the nerve, shortly after its exit from the spinal cord. However, the pain or other symptoms often radiate to the part of the body served by that nerve. The management available in the current era of medicine is not satisfactory. Here, we are presenting a case of cervical spondylosis (CS) radiculopathy which was treated with a combination of Panchkarma procedures and Ayurvedic oral drugs. Greeva stambh was considered as the Ayurvedic diagnosis for the case. The treatment protocol designed for the particular case was Panchatikta ksheera Basti (enema with medicated milk) for 16 days along with Shalishastic pind sweda. The oral medication prescribed was Ashwagandha churna (Withania somnifera Dunal), Shatavari churna (Asparagus recemosus Wild), Gokshur churna (Tribulus terrestris L.) each in a dose of 2 g, Sarpgandha churna (Rauvolfia serpentina (L) Benth. Ex Kurz) 1 grms, Shankha bhasma 500 mg with Luke warm water, Yograj guggulu-3 tablet with Dashmool kwath in a dose of 40 ml, Ashwagandha avaleha 10 g with lukewarm water. All these drugs were prescribed for twice a day. Visual analog scale and range of motion were the parameter used to assess patient and considerable improvement was noticed in the case after a month of treatment which sustained in follow-up duration of 2 months. The case study demonstrate that CS radiculopathy may be successfully managed with Ayurvedic treatment.
  8,354 177 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in urinary tract infection: A need for strict antibiotic prescription policy
Vinita Dogra, Abha Sharma, Bibhavati Mishra, Archana Thakur, Poonam S Loomba
July-September 2012, 1(3):204-206
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.105090  
Introduction: The etiology of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens have been changing over the past years. This retrospective study was conducted to survey the resistance pattern of Gram-negative uropathogens to first-line agents for UTIs; this would be helpful for the clinicians to facilitate the empiric treatment and management of patients with UTI and maybe useful for the formulation of guidelines of antibiotic policies. Materials and Methods: Isolated uropathogens were tested against ampicillin-sulbactam, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem. Result: A total of 2,146 urine samples were cultured, of which 448 samples were positive for Gram-negative bacilli. The most common Gram-negative isolate was Esherichia coli (52%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.9%). E. coli was found to be most resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam (90.1%), followed by norfloxacin (76.3%), and most sensitive to imipenem. P. aeruginosa was least resistant to amikacin (27.5%). Overall resistance to imipenem is less than 20% among the Gram-negative uropathogens except Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: Ofloxacin and amikacin are recommended as the drugs of choice for the empirical treatment of UTI, whereas specific treatment should be based on the etiological agent isolated in the urine culture. There is a strict need for developing specific guidelines for antibiotic prescriptions for UTI in India.
  8,076 410 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Should we stop cilostazol before central neuraxial blockade?
Abhijit S Nair
January-March 2014, 3(1):73-74
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.130627  
  7,889 350 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparative study of nutritional status between government and private primary school children of Mysore city
NC Ashok, HS Kavitha, Praveen Kulkarni
July-September 2014, 3(3):164-169
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.138596  
Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5%) were underweight, 132 (8.4%) were overweight, and 65 (4.1%) were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5%) were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.
  7,269 947 2
CASE REPORTS
An innovative method to anchor mandibular overdenture by OT Cap semiprecision attachment: A clinical report
Prince Kumar, Akshay Bhargava, Sharad Gupta, Sumit Makkar
January-March 2012, 1(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.96416  
Since the establishment of implant in dentistry, the use of removable prostheses in replacing missing teeth apparently becomes less popular, still the preventive prosthodontics emphasizes the importance of any procedure that can delay or eliminate future prosthodontic problems. Most patients with removable partial or complete denture are dissatisfied with their retention and stability. Semiprecision attachments offer considerable advantages such as increased retention of a denture, preservation of teeth which are otherwise indicated for extraction, as a viable alternative to implant retained overdenture and the ability to obtain parallelism in divergent abutments. A prosthodontist who familiarizes himself with semiprecision attachments will be in a position to suggest a better treatment options in retaining teeth which might otherwise be considered for extraction or immediate implant placement. However, lack of proper knowledge, overwhelming number of attachments available in the market, multiple adjustments and repairs are making dentist reluctant to offer and provide attachment-retained prostheses to their patients. This case report describes an innovative technique for improving overall prognosis of mandibular overdenture using advanced and prefabricated housing attachment system.
  7,251 821 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study on room design and radiation safety around room for Co-60 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit converted from room for Ir-192 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit
Om Prakash Gurjar, Sandeep Kaushik, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Rajesh Punia
April-June 2015, 4(2):83-88
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.153628  
Context: Use of Co-60 source in place of Ir-192 in high dose rate brachytherapy unit (HDR unit) has come for discussion in recent publications. Co-60 based system has been advocated for centers which have fewer brachytherapy procedures as it has comparative economically and administrative advantage. This study has direct practical application for such institutions, which are at the cusp of moving from Ir-192 to Co-60 based brachytherapy. Aims: Conversion of Ir-192 HDR room to Co-60 HDR room and to analyze radiation safety around the room. Materials and Methods: Uniform thickness of 15 cm concrete was added to all walls (except one wall adjoining to linear accelerator bunker) to convert existing room forIr-192 HDR unit to suitable room for Co-60 HDR unit. Radiation survey around room was done. Actual and calculated wall thicknesses were compared. Results: Radiation survey data indicates that modified room is suitable for Co-60 HDR unit and all values are in full conformity to annual dose limits mentioned in Safety Code for Radiation Therapy Sources (SCRTS), Atomic Energy Regulatory Body (AERB; the regulatory body in India). Also, modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits mentioned in Safety Report Series No. 47 of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, console wall thickness (0.45 m) is less than the calculated thickness (0.53 m) for instantaneous dose rate (IDR) design dose limit (7.5 ΅Sv/h) as perabove safety report of IAEA. Conclusions: The modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits. However, console wall thickness is less than the required thickness for IDR design dose limit. It has been suggested to add 2.64 cm steel on console wall. It has been found that design dose limits should be considered while making room layout plan and regulatory body should add these constraints inSCRTS.
  7,125 875 -
A study of reduction in breath-holding time in smokers and recovery among ex-smokers in bus depot workers
Bakthavathsalam Sreenivas Sudha, Mysore Shrikanth Sunitha, Santhebatchahalli Mahalingappa Nataraj, Murali Dhar
July-September 2012, 1(3):166-171
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.105080  
Background: Smoking has deleterious effects on breath-holding time (BHT), which has been used in respiratory physiology as a measure of ventilatory response. Evidences regarding assessment of the reversibility of the impact of smoking on BHT and recovery in ex-smokers are ambiguous. Hence, this study was conducted to quantify the reduction in BHT and to assess the reversibility of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 bus-depot workers consisting of equal number of smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers. Breath-holding time was recorded using the mouth piece attached to the mercury manometer where the subjects were advised to blow through the mouth piece after full inspiration as long as possible till the breaking point following standard methods and precautions. Comparisons among 3 groups were performed employing one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. The significance of difference in BHT between the 2 categories of frequency and duration of smoking was tested using Student's t-test for independent samples. Results: BHT was found to be significantly reduced among smokers compared to non-smokers. Almost complete recovery of BHT was observed in ex-smokers. There was deterioration in BHT with increase in BMI, and a statistically significant negative correlation was observed when BHT was correlated with age, especially in smokers. Conclusion: Present study has demonstrated considerable reduction of BHT in smokers and indications of recovery in ex-smokers. Further detailed study with larger sample size, stricter definition of ex-smokers, and considering physical activity is recommended.
  7,069 320 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Professional usage of smart phone applications in medical practice
Hari Kishan Kumar Yadalla, MR Vijaya Shankar
April-June 2012, 1(2):44-46
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.101656  
The professional use of mobile computing and communication devices such as the smartphones are increasingly becoming popular. With the advent of downloadable applications related to health and medical sciences, these are fast becoming a part of healthcare professionals. This article highlights the popular smartphone applications used among the healthcare providers and its role in revolutionizing the future of healthcare delivery system.
  6,825 357 1
Folic acid: A positive influence on periodontal tissues during health and disease
Joann Pauline George, R Shobha, Flemingson J Lazarus
July-September 2013, 2(3):145-152
Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, the origin of which remains obscure. However, the manifestation and progression of periodontitis is influenced by a wide variety of determinants including social and behavioral factors, systemic factors, environmental and genetic factors. Periodontal tissue integrity is dependent on the adequate intake of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and mineral salts. Chronic deficiencies in the availability of one or more of these nutrients are expected to produce pathological alterations in the expression and progression of periodontal disease. Folic acid, also known as vitamin B 9 or folacin, is one such vitamin that is essential for numerous bodily functions ranging from nucleotide biosynthesis to the remethylation of homocysteine. Folic acid deficiency causes absence of keratinization of gingival surface, decreased resistance to infection, necrosis of gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone destruction in animals and humans. This may be accompanied by ulcerative glossitis and cheilitis. Repair and maintenance of periodontal tissues generates a high turnover rate of squamous epithelium and without folic acid, epithelial cells do not divide properly. Folic acid deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world. Organic nitrites, nitrous oxide, cyanates, and isocyanates found in cigarette smoke have been shown to interact with folic acid, transforming them into biologically inactive compounds and thereby leading to lower folic acid levels in serum, red blood cells, and respiratory tract. Folic acid supplementation as an adjunct in the management of periodontal disease in smokers will prove to have beneficial effect on the periodontal tissues during repair and turnover.
  6,245 714 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players
P Ratan Khuman, Thongam Kamlesh, Lourembam Surbala
January-March 2014, 3(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.130599  
Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT) and star excursion balance test (SEBT) in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05). Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000), between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000) and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000). FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.
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Prevalence of HIV among rural pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra, India
Purushottam A Giri, Vidyadhar B Bangal, Deepak B Phalke
January-March 2012, 1(1):13-15
DOI:10.4103/2278-344X.96413  
Background: Many antenatal clinics (ANC)-based HIV surveillance systems in India have limited coverage of remote rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring, and development of effective preventive and care programs. To address this void in rural area of western Maharashtra, we conducted antenatal clinic-based sentinel surveillance to know the prevalence of HIV infection among rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at ANC clinic, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra. A total of 12,171 pregnant women from rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic in Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, during January 2008 to December 2011 were included in the study. Data were entered in Microsoft excel and percentage and proportion was calculated. Results: In the present study, out of 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic, only 50 (0.41%) were HIV positive and remaining 12, 221 (99.59%) were HIV negative. The study showed that the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.41%. Out of the 50 HIV positive pregnant women studied majority, 32 (64.0%), were primigravidas and 18 (36.0%) were multigravidas. Conclusion: In our study all 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling and prevalence of HIV was found to be 0.41%. The need of the hour is to provide universal access to these services by involving the NGO's and the private sector.
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