Home Print this page Email this page
Users Online: 279
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 176-184

Reporting of "death and bereavement care": A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals


1 Adjunct Professor, Srinivas College of Physiotherapy and Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Post-Graduate Student, Srinivas College of Physiotherapy and Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication25-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Senthil P Kumar
Adjunct professor, Srinivas College of Physiotherapy and Research Centre, Mangalore - 575 001, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2278-344X.120586

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Context: The most common concern among terminally ill patients in palliative care is death, which is often perceived as a psychosocial stigma. The knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences regarding death influence both the delivery of palliative care and its outcomes. Aims: This study was conducted with an aim to perform a quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals for articles on death and bereavement care (DBC). Settings and Design: Systematic review of palliative care journals. Materials and Methods: Twelve palliative care journals were searched for articles related to "death" in the title of the articles published in 2009 and 2010. The reporting rates of all journals were compared. The selected articles were categorized into practice, education, research, and administration, and subsequently grouped into original and review articles. The original articles were subgrouped into qualitative and quantitative studies, and the review articles were grouped into narrative and systematic reviews. Each subgroup of original articles category was further classified according to study designs. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentiles was done using SPSS for Windows version 11.5. Results: The overall reporting rate among all journals was 5.27% (96/1821), and Palliat Support Care had the highest reporting rate of 14.4% (17/118), followed by BMC Palliat Care with 9.3% (4/43) and Palliat Med with 7.4% (16/216). Conclusions: The overall reporting rate for DBC articles in palliative care journals was very low, and very few randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews were found. The study findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for DBC.

Keywords: Bereavement care, death and dying, evidence-based palliative care, journal reporting,publication trend, research analysis


How to cite this article:
Kumar SP, Sisodia V. Reporting of "death and bereavement care": A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals . Int J Health Allied Sci 2013;2:176-84

How to cite this URL:
Kumar SP, Sisodia V. Reporting of "death and bereavement care": A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals . Int J Health Allied Sci [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 Sep 27];2:176-84. Available from: https://www.ijhas.in/text.asp?2013/2/3/176/120586

Introduction

The most common concern for terminally ill patients undergoing palliative care is death. [1] The goals of palliative care in the treatment of terminally ill patients are to improve their symptom control, [2] level of functioning, [3] and quality of life (QoL). [4] Death is often regarded as a complex psychosocial stigma which individuals at end-of-life often avoid discussions or interactions about. [5] Though death of an individual is an ultimate reality, [6] the reactions of the patient themselves (on impending death) or of the caregivers and health care professionals (before and after a patient's death) need not be similar in all situations, [7] and it should be understood that death is not a failure in palliative care, but a reality. [8] These differences may not only be attributed to the medical diagnoses, the symptom experience, and treatment side-effects, but also mostly to the socio-cultural [9] and demographic influences. [10] Thus, it is the responsibility of a palliative care team to make dying as a living process for both patients and staff. [11] The caring process extends from a continuum of supportive care to end-of-life care and then on to post-bereavement care, and is an essential component in a palliative health care model. [12],[13]

Death does involve moral, [14],[15],[16],[17] legal, [15],[16],[18] ethical, [19],[20] spiritual, [15],[21] and practical [22],[23] issues both for the family and the health care team, and thus, it is imperative that information and communication about death should be encouraged in routine clinical practice. [24] Issues related to impending death may be on "good death," [25] causation, [26] "place of death," [27],[28] and psychosocial issues (anxiety [29] and denial [30],[31] ). Right from referral until death, the palliative care outcomes measured should directly reflect the symptom pathways that patients experience. [32]

Despite the growing emphasis on death and bereavement care (DBC) in clinical palliative care practice and in palliative care education, [33],[34],[35] death is often stigmatized and management is frequently suboptimal. The attitudes toward death, both of patients [36] and health care professionals, [37],[38] determine the time course of a healthy [39] and joyful [40] death, which is the ultimate goal of palliative care. The current evidence era and the ensuing evidence-based practice warranted application of current research evidence into clinical decision making to facilitate evidence-based palliative care (EBPC). [41] Thus, an analysis of research evidence could not be based upon anecdotal findings, and so, there is a need to evaluate the reporting of research on DBC in palliative care journals. Previously published studies on analysis of palliative care journals reported on moral problems (ethical issues), [42] euthanasia, [43] chaplains and community-based clergy, [44],[45] religion and spirituality, [45],[46],[47] cancer pain, [48] pediatric palliative care, [49] QoL, [50] and cancer-related fatigue. [51] The objective of this paper was to perform a quantitative analysis of research articles on DBC, published in palliative care journals over the past 2 years.

Materials and Methods

Search strategy and criteria

Journals indexed in MEDLINE with the name "palliative" were included and searched for English papers with "death OR die OR dying OR dead OR bereaved OR bereavement" in the title of the papers published in 2009 and 2010.

Data synthesis

The total number of articles in all the selected journals was taken as N. The number of included DBC articles (N 1 ) based on search criteria was compared with total number of articles (N) to obtain reporting rates (RRs; N 1 /N%) for each journal. Such an estimate provided the RR for DBC. The journals were categorized broadly into multidisciplinary, medical, nursing, and other (social work) categories of palliative care journals. The included studies were grouped under four aspects, practice, education, research, and administration, and then categorized into original articles and review articles under each of the four aspects. The original articles were then again grouped into qualitative and quantitative studies. The review articles were grouped into narrative and systematic reviews. The qualitative and qquantitative studies were then subgrouped based upon study designs. The number of articles reported in each of the final subgroups was computed. The procedure of data synthesis is explained in the schematic flowchart [Figure 1].

Data analysis

Descriptive analysis using frequencies for the number of studies with respective percentiles was used for reporting characteristics and was done using 95% confidence interval by SPSS for Windows version 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Comparison between journals and article categories was done visually.

Results

Overall journals' characteristics

The study included 12 palliative care journals with a total of 1821 articles and 96 included articles which met the inclusion criteria. The overall 2-year RR for articles on DBC is 5.27% [Figure 2]. The journals are: AJHPC, Am J Hosp Palliat Care; BMCPC, BMC Palliat Care; COSPC, Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; IJPC, Indian J Palliat Care; IJPN, Int J Palliat Nurs; JHPN, J Hosp Palliat Nurs; JPPCP, J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother; JPC, J Palliat Care; JPM, J Palliat Med; JSWELPC, J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care; PM, Palliat Med; and PSC, Palliat Support Care.

Individually, AJHPC had 16 articles, BMCPC had 4, COSPC had 1, IJPC had 2, IJPN had 12, JHPN had 0, JPPCP had 0, JPC had 6, JPM had 21, [33],[44] JSWELPC had 1, PSC had 17, and PM had 16 articles on DBC. Also refer [Table 1] for the respective RRs and [Figure 3] for comparison of number of DBC articles and "other" articles between the journals. PSC had the highest RR of 14.4% (17/118), followed by BMCPC with 9.3% (4/43) and PM with 7.4% (16/216).

Of the selected journals, seven were multidisciplinary (AJHPC, BMCPC, COSPC, IJPC, JPC, JPPCP, and PSC) with an RR of 5.15% (46/892), two were medical (JPM and PM) with an RR of 5.17% (37/715), two were nursing (IJPN and JHPN) with an RR of 6.15% (12/195), and one was other (social work- JSWEOLPC) with an RR of 5.26% (1/19) [Figure 4].

DBC studies on four aspects of practice, education, research, and administration

Of the 96 included articles, 79 articles were on practice, [52, [52],[53],[54],[55],[56],[57],[58],[59],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67],[68],[69],[70],[71],[72],[73],[74],[75],[76],[77],[78],[79],[80],[81],[82],[83],[84],[85],[86],[87],[88],[89],[90],[91],[92],[93],[94],[95],[96],[97],[98],[99],[100],[101],[102],[103],[104],[105],[106],[107],[108],[109],[110],[111],[112],[113],[114],[115],[116],[117],[118],[119],[120],[121],[122],[123],[124],[125],[126],[127],[128],[129],[130],[131] 8 articles on education, [131],[132],[133],[134],[135],[136],[137],[138] no articles on research, and 9 articles were on administration. [139],[140],[141],[142],[143],[144],[145],[146],[147]

Of the 79 articles on DBC practice, there were 65 original articles [55],[56],[58],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65],[67],[98], [70, [70],[71],[72],[73],[74],[75],[76],[77],[78],[79],[80],[81],[82],[83],[84],[85],[86],[87],[88],[89],[90],[91],[92],[93],[94],[95],[96],[97],[98],[99],[100],[101],[102],[103],[104],[105], [107, ,[108],[109],[110],[111],[112],[113],[114],[115],[116],[117],[118],[120],[121],[125],[126],[127],[129],[130],[131] and 14 review articles. [52],[54],[57],[59],[66],[69],[101],[106],[109],[119],[122],[123],[124],[128] Of the 65 original articles, 51 studies used qualitative methods [55],[56],[58],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67],[70],[71],[72],[73],[75],[76],[77],[79],[80],[81],[82],[83],[84],[85],[86],[87],[88],[91],[92],[94],[95],[100],[102],[105],[107],[108],[ 110],[111],[112],[113],[114],[115],[116],[117],[120],[121],[125],[127],[129],[131] and 14 studies used quantitative methods. [68],[74],[89],[90],[93],[96],[97],[98],[99],[103],[104],[118],[126],[130] Among the 51 qualitative studies, there were no randomized clinical trials, 2 non-randomized clinical trials, [65],[110] 8 cohort studies, [56],[58],[62],[67],[83],[94],[114],[116] 35 cross-sectional studies [55],[60],[63],[64],[70],[71],[72],[73],[75],[76],[77],[78],[79],[80],[81],[82],[84],[85],[86],[87],[95],[100],[102],[107],[108],[111],[112],[

115],[117],[121],[125],[127],[129],[131]
, and 6 case reports. [61],[91],[92],[1 05],[113],[120] Among the 14 quantitative studies, there was 1 randomized clinical trial, [142] 7 cohort studies, [68],[74],[93],[98],[99],[103],[118] 1 case series, [97] 4 cross-sectional studies, [89],[90],[96],[130] and 1 case report.The analysis for practice-related articles is shown in [Table 2].

Of the eight articles on DBC education, there were seven original articles [53],[132],[133],[134],[136],[137],[138] and one review article. [135] All the seven original articles used qualitative methods, [53],[132],[133],[134],[136],[137],[138] and there was one non-randomized clinical trial, [138] one cohort study, [136] and five cross-sectional studies [53],[132],[133],[134],[137] in them.

There were no articles found that focused on the aspect of research on DBC.

Of the nine articles on DBC administration, all were original articles [139],[140],[141],[142],[143],[144],[145],[146],[147] which comprised six qualitative studies [139],[140],[142],[143],[146],[147] and three quantitative studies. [141],[144],[145] There were four cohort studies [139],[142],[146],[147] and two cross-sectional studies [140],[143] amongst the six qualitative studies. All the three quantitative studies were cohort studies. [141],[144],[145] The analysis of administration-related articles is shown in [Table 3].

Relative prevalence of articles on practice, education, research, and administration is shown in [Figure 5], and their comparison for original and review articles on DBC is provided in [Figure 6]. Comparison of original articles among the aspects for qualitative and quantitative study methods is shown in [Figure 7], and comparison between the three aspects (since there were no article on DBC research) of original articles for their study designs is given in [Figure 8],[Figure 9] and [Figure 10], respectively.

Discussion

This study is essentially the first of its kind of a review of palliative care journals utilizing a systematic approach to quantitatively identify reporting characteristics of articles on DBC. This study included 12 palliative care journals. The previous authors, Hermsen and ten Have, reviewed 12 palliative care journals from 1984 to 1999 [42],[43] and found an RR of 12% for ethical issues (458 articles) and the euthanasia rate was unreported (75 articles). Hermsen and ten Have [45] reviewed 12 journals from 1984 to 2002 and found an RR of 2% for 80 articles on spirituality, pastoral care, and religion. Flanelly et al.[44] reviewed three palliative care journals from 1990 to 1999 and found an RR of 5.6% (47/838) for articles on the role of chaplains and clergy. Kumar found a 2-year RR of 5.6% for cancer pain articles [48] in 19 palliative care journals, 5-year RR of 2.66% for pediatric palliative care [49] articles in 12 palliative care journals, 5-year RR of 1.96% for articles on QoL [50] in 12 palliative care journals, and a 5-year RR of cancer-related fatigue [51] in 12 palliative care journals to be 1.04%. The reason why this study found a comparatively better RR in lesser number of years of publication (compared to the RRs of pediatric palliative care, QoL, and cancer-related fatigue) could only be due to the greater emphasis given toward DBC in the palliative care journals in recent years. This study included journals as they are indexed in MEDLINE, since it is the common database for evidence search and the last 2 years of analysis provided current information on RRs.

The study found some interesting observations - some expected, some rather unexpected. As expected, clinical focus on DBC was evident when a greater proportion of practice-related articles were found among the four aspects considered. Another expected finding was a lack of observed difference in reporting between professional categories of palliative care journals. The few unexpected observations include: Absence of articles focusing exclusively on research in DBC, lack of quantitative studies on DBC education, and very few randomized clinical trials (either qualitative or quantitative) and/or systematic reviews were found. The insufficient number of systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials virtually undermines the current EBPC since they are ranked the highest in hierarchy among the levels of evidence.

Health care professionals need to be aware of the relatively better reporting of DBC articles in palliative care journal literature and should shoulder the responsibility to foster better number of reporting high-quality research on DBC for EBPC. In future, similar reviews could be performed with quality appraisal and identify the quality of reporting DBC articles. Also, reviews from other related journals like Death Studies, Death Education, and/or general medical journals may yield different results. Comparison of reporting characteristics between journals based on their specialty would direct clinicians to find research appropriate to answer their relevant clinical questions during EBPC.

Conclusion

The overall 2-year prevalence in reporting of articles on DBC was low, which was only 5.27% among the 12 palliative care journals reviewed in this study. There were no articles found on DBC research, and very few randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews were found. These review findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for DBC, and therefore, further high-quality clinical trials are required to base effective clinical decisions on DBC for a better palliative care clinical practice.

 
  References Top

1.Werkö L. Health technology assessment at the end of life. A realistic view of death and palliative care. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2000;16:903-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Gwyther L, Rawlinson F. Symptom control in palliative care- essential for quality of life. S Afr Med J 2004;94:437.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Jordhoy MS, Inger Ringdal G, Helbostad JL, Oldervoll L, Loge JH, Kaasa S. Assessing physical functioning: A systematic review of quality of life measures developed for use in palliative care. Palliat Med 2007;21:673-82.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Jocham HR, Dassen T, Widdershoven G, Halfens R. Quality of life in palliative care cancer patients: A literature review. J Clin Nurs 2006;15:1188-95.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Kastenbaum R. Death, dying, and bereavement in old age: New developments and their possible implications for psychosocial care. Aged Care Serv Rev 1978;1:3-10.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Brabant S. Death: The ultimate social construction of reality. Omega (Westport) 2010-2011;62:221-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Wright AA, Zhang B, Ray A, Mack JW, Trice E, Balboni T, et al. Associations between end-of-life discussions, patient mental health, medical care near death, and caregiver bereavement adjustment. JAMA 2008;300:1665-73.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Khan SA. Care of dying patients. Death is not failure but reality. BMJ 2003;326:552.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hanlon C, Whitley R, Wondimagegn D, Alem A, Prince M. Between life and death: Exploring the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in rural Ethiopia. Arch Womens Ment Health 2010;13:385-93.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Preston SH. Demographic and social consequences of various causes of death in the United States. Soc Biol 1974;21:144-62.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Death without fear: Palliative care teams help make dying a living process for both patients and staff. RNAO News 1981;37:8-10.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Henry C. Palliative care. Continuing choice to the end of life. Health Serv J 2010;120:20-1.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Griffin JP, Koch KA, Nelson JE, Cooley ME. American College of Chest Physicians. Palliative care consultation, quality-of-life measurements, and bereavement for end-of-life care in patients with lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2 nd edition). Chest 2007;132(3 Suppl):404S-22.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Pullman D. Death, dignity, and moral nonsense. J Palliat Care 2004;20:171-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Borozny ML. Brain death: Legal, religious and moral issues. Axone 1988;10:37-41.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Ziembiñski Z. Legal and moral problems associated with death and dying. Dialect Hum 1977;4:119-25.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Maguire DC. Death and the moral domain. St Lukes J Theol 1977;20:197-216.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Fry-Revere S, Reher T, Ray M. Death: A new legal perspective. J Contemp Health Law Policy 2010;27:1-75.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Paton A. Life and death: Moral and ethical aspects of transplantation. Semin Psychiatry 1971;3:161-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Liao S, Ito S. Brain death: Ethical challenges to palliative care concepts of family care. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;40:309-13.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Mermann AC. Spiritual aspects of death and dying. Yale J Biol Med 1992;65:137-42.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Robinson J. Information on practical procedures following death. Nurs Stand 2009;23:43-7.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Casarett D, Kutner JS, Abrahm J. End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. Life after death: A practical approach to grief and bereavement. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:208-15.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Costello J. Talking about death, dying, and the end of life. Int J Palliat Nurs 2011;17:159.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Barrett PM. A good death: Changing the script for end-of-life care. Front Health Serv Manage 2011;27:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Ashby M. The fallacies of death causation in palliative care. Med J Aust 1997;166:176-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.McWhinney IR, Bass MJ, Orr V. Factors associated with location of death (home or hospital) of patients referred to a palliative care team. CMAJ 1995;152:361-7.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Taylor L. UK palliative care professionals identified service infrastructure, patient and carer attitudes and characteristics, and practice culture as influencing place of death of patients with cancer. Evid Based Nurs 2006;9:32.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Mosher CE, Danoff-Berg S. Death anxiety and cancer-related stigma: A terror management analysis. Death Stud 2007;31:885-907.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Zimmermann C. Death denial: Obstacle or instrument for palliative care? An analysis of clinical literature. Sociol Health Illn 2007;29:297-314.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Zimmermann C. Denial of impending death: A discourse analysis of the palliative care literature. Soc Sci Med 2004;59:1769-80.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Lewin G, Haslehurst P, Smith J. Symptom pathways from referral to death: Measuring palliative care outcomes. Int J Palliat Nurs 2008;14:58-64.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Morgan JD. The teaching of palliative care within the context of an undergraduate course on death, dying, and bereavement. J Palliat Care 1988;4:32-3.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Field D. Education for palliative care: Formal education about death, dying and bereavement in UK medical schools in 1983 and 1994. Med Educ 1995;29:414-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Field D, Wee B. Preparation for palliative care: Teaching about death, dying and bereavement in UK medical schools 2000-2001. Med Educ 2002;36:561-7.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Rabow MW, Schanche K, Petersen J, Dibble SL, McPhee SJ. Patient perceptions of an outpatient palliative care intervention: "It had been on my mind before, but I did not know how to start talking about death." J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;26:1010-5.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Low JT, Payne S. The good and bad death perceptions of health professionals working in palliative care. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 1996;5:237-41.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Claxton-Oldfield S, Crain M, Claxton-Oldfield J. Death anxiety and death competency: The impact of a palliative care volunteer training program. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2006;23:464-8.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Russell P, Sander R. Palliative care: Promoting the concept of a healthy death. Br J Nurs 1998;7:256-61.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Twycross R. Palliative care. The joy of death. Lancet 1997;350(Suppl 3):SIII20.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Lunder U, Sauter S, Fürst CJ. Evidence-based palliative care: Beliefs and evidence for changing practice. Palliat Med 2004;18:265-6.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Hermsen MA, ten Have HA. Moral problems in palliative care journals. Palliat Med 2001;15:425-31.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Hermsen MA, ten Have HA. Euthanasia in palliative care journals. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002;23:517-25.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Flannelly KJ, Weaver AJ, Smith WJ, Oppenheimer JE. A systematic review on chaplains and community-based clergy in three palliative care journals: 1990-1999. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2003;20:263-8.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Hermsen MA, ten Have HA. Pastoral care, spirituality, and religion in palliative care journals. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2004;21:353-6.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Flannelly KJ, Weaver AJ, Costa KG. A systematic review of religion and spirituality in three palliative care journals, 1990-1999. J Palliat Care 2004;20:50-6.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Puchalski CM, Kilpatrick SD, McCullough ME, Larson DB. A systematic review of spiritual and religious variables in Palliative Medicine, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Hospice Journal, Journal of Palliative Care, and Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Palliat Support Care 2003;1:7-13.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Kumar SP. Reporting characteristics of cancer pain: A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals. Indian J Palliat Care 2011;17:57-66.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Kumar SP. Reporting of pediatric palliative care- a systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals. Indian J Palliat Care 2011;17:202-9.  Back to cited text no. 49
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
50.Kumar SP. Reporting of 'quality-of-life'- a systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals. Indian J Palliat Care 2012;18:59-67.  Back to cited text no. 50
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
51.Kumar SP, Prasad K. Reporting of cancer-related fatigue- a systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals. Ibnosina Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2013;5 :22-30.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Siddiqui MF, Holley JL. Residents' practices and perceptions about do not resuscitate orders and pronouncing death: An opportunity for clinical training. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2011;28:94-7.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Seno VL. Being-with dying: Authenticity in end-of-life encounters. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:377-86.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Glazer HR, Clark MD, Thomas R, Haxton H. Parenting after the death of a spouse. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:532-6.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Rady MY, Verheijde JL. Continuous deep sedation until death: Palliation or physician-assisted death? Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:205-14.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.Jones BW. Hospice disease types which indicate a greater need for bereavement counseling. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:187-90.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Mazzarino-Willett A. Deathbed phenomena: Its role in peaceful death and terminal restlessness. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:127-33.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.Okamoto T, Ando M, Morita T, Hirai K, Kawamura R, Mitsunori M, et al. Religious care required for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer from the perspective of bereaved family members. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:50-4.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Gonzalez F. Diphenhydramine may be useful as a palliative treatment for patients dying with Parkinson's disease and tremors: A case report and discussion. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:474-5.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Okishiro N, Miyashita M, Tsuneto S, Sato K, Shima Y. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study (J-HOPE Study): Views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:98-104.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.Byock IR, Corbeil YJ, Goodrich ME. Beyond polarization, public preferences suggest policy opportunities to address aging, dying, and family caregiving. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:200-8.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.Claxton-Oldfield S, Gosselin N, Claxton-Oldfield J. Imagine you are dying: Would you be interested in having a hospice palliative care volunteer? Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:47-51.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.Magill L. The meaning of the music: The role of music in palliative care music therapy as perceived by bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:33-9.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.Howell DA, Roman E, Cox H, Smith AG, Patmore R, Garry AC, et al. Destined to die in hospital? Systematic review and meta-analysis of place of death in haematological malignancy. BMC Palliat Care 2010;9:9.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.van der Velden LF, Francke AL, Hingstman L, Willems DL. Dying from cancer or other chronic diseases in the Netherlands: Ten-year trends derived from death certificate data. BMC Palliat Care 2009;8:4.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.Waterworth S, Gott M. Decision making among older people with advanced heart failure as they transition to dependency and death. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 2010;4:238-42.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.Iranmanesh S, Axelsson K, Häggström T, Sävenstedt S. Caring for dying people: Attitudes among Iranian and Swedish nursing students. Indian J Palliat Care 2010;16:147-53.  Back to cited text no. 67
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
68.Ad M. Eyelid closure at death. Indian J Palliat Care 2009;15:108-10.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.Olsson L, Östlund G, Strang P, Jeppsson Grassman E, Friedrichsen M. Maintaining hope when close to death: Insight from cancer patients in palliative home care. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:607-12.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.Hall S, Legault A, Côté J. Dying means suffocating: Perceptions of people living with severe COPD facing the end of life. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:451-7.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.Peterson J, Johnson M, Halvorsen B, Apmann L, Chang PC, Kershek S, et al. Where do nurses go for help? A qualitative study of coping with death and dying. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:434-8.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.Holdsworth L, Fisher S. A retrospective analysis of preferred and actual place of death for hospice patients. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:424-8.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.Kongsuwan W, Keller K, Touhy T, Schoenhofer S. Thai Buddhist intensive care unit nurses' perspective of a peaceful death: An empirical study. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:241-7.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.Peterson J, Johnson MA, Halvorsen B, Apmann L, Chang PC, Kershek S, et al. What is it so stressful about caring for a dying patient? A qualitative study of nurses' experiences. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:181-7.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.Griggs C. Community nurses' perceptions of a good death: A qualitative exploratory study. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:140-9.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.Smith R, Porock D. Caring for people dying at home: A research study into the needs of community nurses. Int J Palliat Nurs 2009;15:601-8.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.Murakawa Y, Nihei Y. Understanding the concept of a 'good death' in Japan: Differences in the views of doctors, palliative and non-palliative ward nurses. Int J Palliat Nurs 2009;15:282-9.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.Agnew A, Duffy J. Effecting positive change with bereaved service users in a hospice setting. Int J Palliat Nurs 2009;15:114-8.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.Charalambous A, Papastavrou E. Problems arising when caring for a dying patient with cancer: Reflection on a critical incident. Int J Palliat Nurs 2009;15:198-202.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.Masucci L, Guerriere DN, Cheng R, Coyte PC. Determinants of place of death for recipients of home-based palliative care. J Palliat Care 2010;26:279-86.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.Seow H, Barbera L, Howell D, Dy SM. How end-of-life home care services are used from admission to death: A population-based cohort study. J Palliat Care 2010;26:270-8.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.Veillette AM, Fillion L, Wilson DM, Thomas R, Dumont S. La Belle Mort en Milieu Rural: A report of an ethnographic study of the good death for Quebec rural francophones. J Palliat Care 2010;26:159-66.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.Hasson F, Spence A, Waldron M, Kernohan G, McLaughlin D, Watson B, et al. Experiences and needs of bereaved carers during palliative and end-of-life care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Palliat Care 2009;25:157-63.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.Wilson DM, Fillion L, Thomas R, Justice C, Bhardwaj PP, Veillette AM. The "good" rural death: A report of an ethnographic study in Alberta, Canada. J Palliat Care 2009;25:21-9.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.Mutto EM, Errázquin A, Rabhansl MM, Villar MJ. Nursing education: The experience, attitudes, and impact of caring for dying patients by undergraduate Argentinian nursing students. J Palliat Med 2010;13:1445-50.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.Houttekier D, Cohen J, Van den Block L, Bossuyt N, Deliens L. Involvement of palliative care services strongly predicts place of death in Belgium. J Palliat Med 2010;13:1461-8.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.Leung KK, Tsai JS, Cheng SY, Liu WJ, Chiu TY, Wu CH, et al. Can a good death and quality of life be achieved for patients with terminal cancer in a palliative care unit? J Palliat Med 2010;13:1433-8.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.Loike J, Gillick M, Mayer S, Prager K, Simon JR, Steinberg A, et al. The critical role of religion: Caring for the dying patient from an Orthodox Jewish perspective. J Palliat Med 2010;13:1267-71.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.Le BH, Watt JN. Care of the dying in Australia's busiest hospital: Benefits of palliative care consultation and methods to enhance access. J Palliat Med 2010;13:855-60.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.Shinjo T, Okada M. Palmar petechiae (black spots on palms) in terminally ill patients with cancer: A sign of impending death. J Palliat Med 2010;13:615-8.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.Cassel JB, Hager MA, Clark RR, Retchin SM, Dimartino J, Coyne PJ, et al. Concentrating hospital-wide deaths in a palliative care unit: The effect on place of death and system-wide mortality. J Palliat Med 2010;13:371-4.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.Miller W, Levy P, Lamba S, Zalenski RJ, Compton S. Descriptive analysis of the in-hospital course of patients who initially survive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but die in-hospital. J Palliat Med 2010;13:19-22.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.Nelson ML, Schrader SL, Eidsness LM. "South Dakota's Dying to Know": Personal experiences with end-of-life care. J Palliat Med 2009;12:905-13.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.Chawla LS, Akst S, Junker C, Jacobs B, Seneff MG. Surges of electroencephalogram activity at the time of death: A case series. J Palliat Med 2009;12:1095-100.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.Brungardt G. Teaching The death of Ivan Ilyich: A guide to introducing Tolstoy's classic. J Palliat Med 2009;12:679-82.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.Feudtner C, Hexem KR, Shabbout M, Feinstein JA, Sochalski J, Silber JH. Prediction of pediatric death in the year after hospitalization: A population-level retrospective cohort study. J Palliat Med 2009;12:160-9.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.Sullivan AM, Gadmer NM, Block SD. The project on death in America faculty scholars program: A report on scholars' progress. J Palliat Med 2009;12:155-9.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.Floriani C, Schramm FR. Journey of struggle: Kalothanasia and the hospice way of dying. Palliat Support Care 2010;8:461-8.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.Lydon A, Hennings J, Woolley BR. Evaluation of a British child bereavement service: The user's perspective. Palliat Support Care 2010;8:297-303.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.Stajduhar KI, Martin W, Cairns M. What makes grief difficult? Perspectives from bereaved family caregivers and healthcare providers of advanced cancer patients. Palliat Support Care 2010;8:277-89.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.Lazenby M, Ma T, Moffat HJ, Funk M, Knobf MT, McCorkle R. Influences on place of death in Botswana. Palliat Support Care 2010;8:177-85.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.Ishida M, Onishi H, Wada M, Wada T, Wada M, Uchitomi Y, et al. Bereavement dream? Successful antidepressant treatment for bereavement-related distressing dreams in patients with major depression. Palliat Support Care 2010;8:95-8.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.Macleod AD. Lightening up before death. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:513-6.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.McClement S, Wowchuk S, Klaasen K. Caring as if it were my family: Health care aides' perspectives about expert care of the dying resident in a personal care home. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:449-57.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.Rushton CH, Sellers DE, Heller KS, Spring B, Dossey BM, Halifax J. Impact of a contemplative end-of-life training program: Being with dying. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:405-14.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.Shinn EH, Taylor CL, Kilgore K, Valentine A, Bodurka DC, Kavanagh J, et al. Associations with worry about dying and hopelessness in ambulatory ovarian cancer patients. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:299-306.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.Hendrickson KC. Morbidity, mortality, and parental grief: A review of the literature on the relationship between the death of a child and the subsequent health of parents. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:109-19.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.Magill L. The spiritual meaning of pre-loss music therapy to bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:97-108.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.Montel S, Laurence V, Copel L, Pacquement H, Flahault C. Place of death of adolescents and young adults with cancer: First study in a French population. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:27-35.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.Dehlin L, Reg LM. Adolescents' experiences of a parent's serious illness and death. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:13-25.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.Reich M, Gaudron C, Penel N. When cancerophobia and denial lead to death. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:253-5.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.Carter PA, Mikan SQ, Simpson C. A feasibility study of a two-session home-based cognitive behavioral therapy-insomnia intervention for bereaved family caregivers. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:197-206.  Back to cited text no. 112
    
113.Wong WK, Ussher J, Perz J. Strength through adversity: Bereaved cancer carers' accounts of rewards and personal growth from caring. Palliat Support Care 2009;7:187-96.  Back to cited text no. 113
    
114.Hack TF, McClement SE, Chochinov HM, Cann BJ, Hassard TH, Kristjanson LJ, et al. Learning from dying patients during their final days: Life reflections gleaned from dignity therapy. Palliat Med 2010;24:715-23.  Back to cited text no. 114
    
115.Kreling B, Selsky C, Perret-Gentil M, Huerta EE, Mandelblatt JS; Latin American Cancer Research Coalition. 'The worst thing about hospice is that they talk about death': Contrasting hospice decisions and experience among immigrant Central and South American Latinos with US-born White, non-Latino cancer caregivers. Palliat Med 2010;24:427-34.  Back to cited text no. 115
    
116.Pugh EJ, McEvoy M, Blenkinsopp J. Use of the proportion of patients dying on an End of Life Pathway as a quality marker: Considerations for interpretation. Palliat Med 2010;24:544-7.  Back to cited text no. 116
    
117.Hales S, Zimmermann C, Rodin G. Review: The quality of dying and death: A systematic review of measures. Palliat Med 2010;24:127-44.  Back to cited text no. 117
    
118.Kehl KA, Gartner CM. Can you hear me now? The experience of a deaf family member surrounding the death of loved ones. Palliat Med 2010;24:88-93.  Back to cited text no. 118
    
119.Gardiner C, Gott M, Small N, Payne S, Seamark D, Barnes S, et al. Living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: patients concerns regarding death and dying. Palliat Med 2009;23:691-7.  Back to cited text no. 119
    
120.Agnew A, Manktelow R, Taylor B, Jones L. Bereavement needs assessment in specialist palliative care: A review of the literature. Palliat Med 2010;24:46-59.  Back to cited text no. 120
    
121.Bell CL, Somogyi-Zalud E, Masaki KH. Methodological review: Measured and reported congruence between preferred and actual place of death. Palliat Med 2009;23:482-90.  Back to cited text no. 121
    
122.Kellehear A. On dying and human suffering. Palliat Med 2009;23:388-97.  Back to cited text no. 122
    
123.Monterosso L, Kristjanson LJ, Phillips MB. The supportive and palliative care needs of Australian families of children who die from cancer. Palliat Med 2009;23:526-36.  Back to cited text no. 123
    
124.Agar M, Currow D, Plummer J, Seidel R, Carnahan R, Abernethy AP. Changes in anticholinergic load from regular prescribed medications in palliative care as death approaches. Palliat Med 2009;23:257-65.  Back to cited text no. 124
    
125.Vale-Taylor P. "We will remember them": A mixed-method study to explore which post-funeral remembrance activities are most significant and important to bereaved people living with loss, and why those particular activities are chosen. Palliat Med 2009;23:537-44.  Back to cited text no. 125
    
126.Douglas C, Murtagh FE, Chambers EJ, Howse M, Ellershaw J. Symptom management for the adult patient dying with advanced chronic kidney disease: A review of the literature and development of evidence-based guidelines by a United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group. Palliat Med 2009;23:103-10.  Back to cited text no. 126
    
127.Addington-Hall JM, O'Callaghan AC. A comparison of the quality of care provided to cancer patients in the UK in the last three months of life in in-patient hospices compared with hospitals, from the perspective of bereaved relatives: Results from a survey using the VOICES questionnaire. Palliat Med 2009;23:190-7.  Back to cited text no. 127
    
128.LeGrand SB, Walsh D. Comfort measures: Practical care of the dying cancer patient. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:488-93.  Back to cited text no. 128
    
129.Paroz S, Santos-Eggimann B. Measuring the diffusion of palliative care in long-term care facilities: Adeath census. BMC Palliat Care 2009;8:1.  Back to cited text no. 129
    
130.Matsui M, Braun K. Nurses' and care workers' attitudes toward death and caring for dying older adults in Japan. Int J Palliat Nurs 2010;16:593-8.  Back to cited text no. 130
    
131.De Jong JD, Clarke LE. What is a good death? Stories from palliative care. J Palliat Care 2009;25:61-7.  Back to cited text no. 131
    
132.Campbell ML, Templin T, Walch J. Patients who are near death are frequently unable to self-report dyspnea. J Palliat Med 2009;12:881-4.  Back to cited text no. 132
    
133.Wowchuk SM, Wilson EA, Embleton L, Garcia M, Harlos M, Chochinov HM. The palliative medication kit: An effective way of extending care in the home for patients nearing death. J Palliat Med 2009;12:797-803.  Back to cited text no. 133
    
134.Mutto EM, Cavazzoli C, Ballbé JA, Tambone V, Centeno C, Villar MJ. Teaching dying patient care in three universities in Argentina, Spain, and Italy. J Palliat Med 2009;12:603-7.  Back to cited text no. 134
    
135.Matzo M, Miller D. Humor and death: A qualitative study of The New Yorker cartoons (1986-2006). Palliat Support Care 2009;7:487-93.  Back to cited text no. 135
    
136.Mystakidou K, Parpa E, Tsilika E, Panagiotou I, Galanos A, Tsiatas M, et al. The incidence of place of death in Greek patients with cancer in 1995 and 2005. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:347-53.  Back to cited text no. 136
    
137.Benkel I, Wijk H, Molander U. Managing grief and relationship roles influence which forms of social support the bereaved needs. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26:241-5.  Back to cited text no. 137
    
138.Small N, Barnes S, Gott M, Payne S, Parker C, Seamark D, et al. Dying, death and bereavement: A qualitative study of the views of carers of people with heart failure in the UK. BMC Palliat Care 2009;8:6.  Back to cited text no. 138
    
139.McCarthy MC, Clarke NE, Ting CL, Conroy R, Anderson VA, Heath JA. Prevalence and predictors of parental grief and depression after the death of a child from cancer. J Palliat Med 2010;13:1321-6.  Back to cited text no. 139
    
140.Guertin MH, Côté-Brisson L, Major D, Brisson J. Factors associated with death in the emergency department among children dying of complex chronic conditions: Population-based study. J Palliat Med 2009;12:819-25.  Back to cited text no. 140
    
141.Schrader SL, Nelson ML, Eidsness LM. "South Dakota's dying to Know": A statewide survey about end of life. J Palliat Med 2009;12:695-705.  Back to cited text no. 141
    
142.Webb NM, Tucker D. Young adults' opinions about hospice and home death. J Palliat Med 2009;12:337-42.  Back to cited text no. 142
    
143.Bergman EJ, Haley WE. Depressive symptoms, social network, and bereavement service utilization and preferences among spouses of former hospice patients. J Palliat Med 2009;12:170-6.  Back to cited text no. 143
    
144.Schroepfer TA, Noh H. Terminally ill elders' anticipation of support in dying and in death. J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care 2010;6:73-90.  Back to cited text no. 144
    
145.Grande GE, Ewing G; National Forum for Hospice at Home. Informal carer bereavement outcome: Relation to quality of end of life support and achievement of preferred place of death. Palliat Med 2009;23:248-56.  Back to cited text no. 145
    
146.Benkel I, Wijk H, Molander U. Family and friends provide most social support for the bereaved. Palliat Med 2009;23:141-9.  Back to cited text no. 146
    




 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3029    
    Printed51    
    Emailed2    
    PDF Downloaded250    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal