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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 222-229

Integration of umbilical venous and arterial Doppler flow parameters for prediction of adverse perinatal outcome

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Udupi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Hebbar Shripad
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Udupi - 576 104, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-344X.167656

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Background: Quantification of umbilical vein (UV) blood flow rate and umbilical artery Doppler indices might be valuable in assessing fetuses at increased risk of perinatal complications as they receive their supply of oxygen and nutrients through this vessel. Previous studies have indicated that UV blood volume flow rate to umbilical artery pulsatility index (UAPI) ratio (venous arterial index [VAI]) evaluates both venous and arterial arm of fetal umbilical circulation and hence, can be adopted as a screening tool in management of high risk pregnancy. Objectives: To compare umbilical VAI with adverse perinatal outcome and also to evaluate its efficacy with other flow indices in determining perinatal outcome. Materials and Methods: Various Doppler indices such as normalized blood flow rate in UV (nUV, ml/kg estimated fetal weight/min), VAI (nUV/UAPI), umbilical artery resistance index (RI), UAPI, and systolic diastolic ratio were determined in 103 pregnant women within 2 weeks of the delivery. A risk score was devised using APGAR at 5 min, birth weight, preterm delivery, fetal distress, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) care, and perinatal death and this score was correlated with antenatal Doppler findings. Results: Subjects with low VAI were found to have a greater association with intrauterine growth restricted fetuses (28.5%) and low liquor (35.7%), preterm deliveries (46.4%), lower mean birth weight (2.25 kg), higher NICU admission rates (32.1%). The unfavorable score was noticed in 25.2% of the neonates. They had lower VAI (156 vs. 241), UV diameter (6.2 mm vs. 7.8 mm), UV velocity (16.2 vs. 17.8), nUV (163.7 vs. 206.4), and higher PI (1.3 vs. 0.9). A cut-off of VAI of 105 ml/kg/min had sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 93.5% for predicting poor perinatal outcome. Conclusion: VAI with a cut-off of 105 ml/kg/min can be used as an additional tool along with the other conventional Doppler indices in order to predict adverse fetal outcome.

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