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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 215-222

Macroscopic, microscopic, and preliminary analytical evaluation and quality assessment of the root of Samarakhadyam (Byttneria herbacea Roxb.): An extrapharmacopoeial drug of Ayurveda

1 Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, JS Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Nadiad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, IPGT and RA, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Pharmacognosy Laboratory, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, IPGT and RA, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tarun Sharma
Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, JS Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Nadiad - 387 001, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_94_19

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BACKGROUND: Byttneria herbacea Roxb., an extrapharmacopoeial plant of Ayurveda, locally known as Samarakhai by tribal people of Odisha, belongs to the family Sterculiaceae. The roots of B. herbacea is traditionally claimed to be used in the management of wounds, fractures, swellings, gynecological disorders, diarrhea, cuts, ulcers, and others. Although the plant is used traditionally, for its pharmacognostical characteristics, no proper scientific evaluation has been reported. AIMS: To establish and standardize the root of the plant for its microscopical and physicochemical characteristics along with different qualitative tests and to assess heavy metals, aflatoxins, and insecticide and pesticide residue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After proper authentication, the roots were exposed to macroscopy, microscopy and physicochemical, qualitative and high-performance thin-layer chromatography study as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Heavy metal analysis, aflatoxin analysis, and insecticide and pesticide residue analysis of the root were carried out following the standard methods. RESULTS: Microscopic study, through transverse section of root shows outer multilayered elongated compactly arranged cork cells, multiseriate medullary rays embedded with brown content, starch grains and prismatic crystals, centrally located vascular bundle consist of xylem and phloem. Physicochemical parameters showed that water-soluble extractive value (11.995%) was more than that of methanol-soluble extractive (5.936%). Chromatography study exhibited 8 peaks at 254 nm and 4 peaks at 366 nm. Heavy metals and aflatoxins B2, G1, and G2 were found in the prescribed limit, whereas aflatoxin B1 was above the limit of quantification. Insecticide and pesticide residues were not detected in the sample. CONCLUSION: Typical microscopical characteristics are multiseriate medullary rays, tannin contents, and prismatic crystals. Heavy metals and aflatoxins B2, G1, and G2 were found below the limit of quantification. The findings of the study may be helpful to identify, standardize, and for quality assessment of root of B. herbacea.

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