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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 348-352

Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercises on grip strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic performance in Indian judo players


Intern, Department of Physiotherapy, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission06-Jan-2020
Date of Decision15-May-2020
Date of Acceptance14-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication15-Oct-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ujwal Laxman Yeole
Department of Physiotherapy, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Gultekadi, Pune - 411 037, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_121_19

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  Abstract 


BACKGROUND: The judo is the dynamic, high-intensity intermittent sport which needs advanced skills and military science excellence for fulfillment. Throughout the judo combat, strength and muscle power are associated with performance and judo-throw potency; therefore, the study aims to analyze the effect of physiotherapy exercises on grip strength, aerobic performance, and muscular endurance in Indian judo players.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental study design was used. The study participants were divided into two groups: Group A (n = 15) received physiotherapy exercises of grip strength training, muscular endurance training, and aerobic training for 3 days/week for 6 weeks and Group B (n = 15) received the conventional exercise program. Pre- and posttreatment analysis was recorded and statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of thirty players were recruited for the study. The grip strength of Group A improved from 13.98 to 19.28 (0.0001) for the dominant hand and from 10.66 to 16.26 (0.0001) for nondominant hand as compared to Group B from 12.92 to 13.59 (0.270) for the dominant hand and from 10.45 to 11.34 (0.135) for nondominant hand. The muscular endurance for sit-ups and push-ups of Group A improved from 10.2 to 17.2 (0.0001) and 13.47 to 19.93 (0.0001), respectively, as compared to Group B whose values were 9–10.13 (0.091) and 11.67–12.53 (0.155), respectively. The aerobic performance of Group A improved from 40.91 to 47.31 (0.0001) as compared to Group B from 39.26 to 40.16 (0.222).
CONCLUSION: Physiotherapy exercises are effective for improvement in grip strength, aerobic performance, and muscular endurance among Indian judo players.

Keywords: Aerobic performance, grip strength, judo players, muscular endurance


How to cite this article:
Yeole UL, Naikoji SS. Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercises on grip strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic performance in Indian judo players. Int J Health Allied Sci 2020;9:348-52

How to cite this URL:
Yeole UL, Naikoji SS. Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercises on grip strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic performance in Indian judo players. Int J Health Allied Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 21];9:348-52. Available from: https://www.ijhas.in/text.asp?2020/9/4/348/298108




  Introduction Top


Judo was originally invented in 1882 by Dr. Jigoro Kano as a physical, mental, and ethical pedagogy in Japan. It is usually classified as a contemporary, self-protection, and modern martial art that evolved into a combat and Olympic sport. The judo is the dynamic, high-intensity intermittent sport that needs advanced skills and military science excellence for success.[1]

Competitive judo is represented as a multijoint and high-intensity movement discipline, within which specific throwing techniques need a good physical fitness.[2] To be effective, judo techniques have to be applied with accuracy, at intervals a decent “window of opportunity.,”with strength, speed, and power. This short burst of energy is equipped primarily by anaerobic metabolism. In distinction, the maintenance of the intermittent work performed throughout a match, primarily supported by aerobic metabolism. To boot, aerobic metabolism is particularly important for a good recovery between matches. With these facts, it will be established that judo could be advanced sport with demands comprising a variety of specific characteristics to reach a high level in competition.[1]

During judo combat, strength and muscle power are associated with performance and judo-throw potency. Previous analysis has shown that lower limb muscle power could be determinant of the number of throws performed in judo, and it is associated with the share of win during the male judo European World Cup competitions. Once a judoka executes a range of judo throwing techniques (e.g., seoi-nage, o-goshi, koshi-guruma), power is optimized by muscle-elastic mechanisms, such as the stretch-shortening cycle, and leads to a rise of movement potency.[3]

Upper limb strength is another vital facet throughout judo performance, primarily throughout grip combat (kumi-kata) to attack, defend, and maintain balance. The constant dynamic changes of combat need athletes to use a mixture of maximum strength and endurance throughout kumi-kata, largely to manage the distance between a judoka and his/her opponent.[3]

The ability to produce maximum strength or the speed of force development is another elementary action throughout grip combat. This becomes important ability to keep strength for longer period of time during the match that usually lasts for 5 min or more (golden score). During non-standing combat (Ne-Waza ), which often takes places once a judoka desires to use a chokehold, using techniques like associate arm lock, a maximum strength and muscular endurance are implausibly vital for thriving judo performance.[3] Although decisive actions in judo are primarily smitten by anaerobic metabolism, aerobic fitness appears to be vital in high-intensity intermittent exercise, which is the case with judo, because it permits higher recovery throughout the short rest periods between efforts.

The aerobic fitness of judo players has been assessed basically through maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) for the aerobic power component and via thus referred to as anaerobic threshold for the aerobic capability part. Each aerobic power and capability part thought of relevant to judo performance to maintain a higher intensity throughout the match, delay the build up of metabolites related to fatigue processes (e.g. H+ and K+) and improve the recovery method between two consecutive matches.[1]

It is accepted that understanding the characteristics of elite athletes can provide insightful information regarding what is needed for competitive success. From a physical conditioning perspective, the goal of giving physiotherapy training is to prepare judo competitors to effectively manage both the physical activity and the physiological demands of combat. It is therefore important that coaches and Physiotherapists to collect objective information about the players physical performance and capabilities. This would help to substantiate the objectives of Physiotherapy training, establish short- and long-term Physiotherapy exercise protocol and also provide objective feedback to motivate athletes during exercises.


  Materials and Methods Top


An experimental study was done on thirty players. Participants with playing for more than 1 year, both males and females between the ages of 8 and 18 years, were selected. Participants who are having recent injuries, intermittent practice, and involved in other sports along with judo were excluded from the study. Permission was taken from the Institutional Ethical Committee of Department of Physiotherapy, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth. The aim and methodology of the study were explained to them, and their consent was taken. The players were recruited from Judo sports club, different sports clubs were approached, and permission was obtained before the study. Demographic data of the participants were documented. Participants were divided into two groups: Group A is the experimental group which received physiotherapy exercises of grip strength training, muscular endurance training, and aerobic training, and Group B is the control group received conventional exercises.

Pretreatment grip strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic performance were assessed. A hand dynamometer was used to determine the grip strength. The dynamometer was set in line with the hand measurement of the player and by applying the grip strength with no elbow flexion. The participant performed accurately three times, and the maximum reading out of three was taken. Push-up and sit-up test was performed for muscular endurance, and pre- and post-heart rate and respiratory rate were taken during YMCA 3-min step test.

The participants of the experimental group had undergone physiotherapy exercise program for 6 weeks with 30–40 min/session and three sessions per week. These exercises included warm-up 10 min (active range of motion exercises, squatting),[4] aerobic training 20 min (sprint running, cycle ergometer, stairstepping, step touch, and skipping),[5],[6] grip strength training 5 min (clinch fist tightly, squeeze ball, and wrap a rubber around the hand),[4] and muscular endurance training 5 min (sit-ups and push-ups with 60% 1RM).[6] After every 2 weeks of participation, the progression of exercise was done for grip strength, and the duration of exercise was improved. For muscular endurance, the intensity of exercise was improved by calculating 70% and 80% of 1RM, and for aerobic performance, the duration and intensity of exercises were improved. The conventional exercises given to the control group were sets of low-impact isometric exercises and walking and jogging exercises. Cooldown involved upper and lower body stretching exercises for both groups.[6] Posttreatment grip strength, aerobic performance, and muscular endurance were assessed, and the data were collected, and statistical analysis was done.

Statistics

The analyzed data showed that it was not a normal distribution using Shapiro–Wilk test; hence, nonparametric test such as Wilcoxon sign-rank test (pair t-test) was performed to analyze the data within the groups and Mann–Whitney rank-sum test (unpaired t-test) was used to analyze the data between the groups.

Ethical approval

After seeking permission from the Institutional Research Review Committee of Department of Physiotherapy, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, ethical clearance was obtained.


  Discussion Top


The judo is the dynamic, high-intensity intermittent sport that needs advanced skills and military science excellence for success.[1]

The ability to develop a strong grip and maintain it during a judo match has become a vital component for judo athletes. The synergistic action of flexor and extensor muscles and the interplay of muscle groups is a vital think about the strength of ensuring grip.[7] The present study showed improvement in grip strength from pre- to post intervention [Figure 1]. This group underwent exercise program that included clinching fist tightly, squeezing ball, rubber band exercises, and foam grip strengthener exercises. The impact of strengthening exercise on a muscle or muscle group is lifting, lowering, or controlling resistance for a comparatively low number of repetitions or over a brief amount of time. Therefore muscle adapt to significant resistance that improves muscle strength, primarily as a result of neural adaptations and improve in muscle fiber size.[4]
Figure 1: Comparison of grip strength pre- and post-interventions. Interpretation: the Grip strength of Group A improved from 13.98 ± 4.9 to 19.28 ± 5.9 for dominant hand and from 10.66 ± 4.4 to 16.26 ± 5.3 for nondominant hand as compared to Group B from 12.92 ± 2.4 to 13.59 ± 3.4 for dominant hand and from 10.45 ± 4.5 to 11.34 ± 3.9 for nondominant hand with P < 0.001

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In our study we also found that grip strength of dominant hand was more than non-dominant [Table 1]. A similar result was seen in a study done by Nurgul Arinci Incel and Esma Ceceli, in which they concluded that the dominant hand is remarkably stronger in right-handed people, but no such remarkable difference between sides could be documented for left-handed people. This difference may be attributed to the fact that left-handed people are temporarily forced to use their nondominant hands for daily activities in this right-hand dominant world.[7]
Table 1: Details of players pre- and post-intervention

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In comparison, the muscular endurance of Group A showed a significant improvement as compared to Group B [Figure 2]. This group underwent exercise program that included holding the sit-up and push-up position for 12 times with three repetitions of each exercise, respectively. Sit-up and push-up exercises are generally done for muscular endurance. Endurance exercise causes low-intensity muscle contractions, a large number of repetitions, for a prolonged time period due to strength training, muscles adapt to endurance training by increases in their oxidative and metabolic capacities, and then which they allow better delivery and use of oxygen. Endurance training has a more positive impact on improving function and endurance than strength training. In addition, using low levels of resistance in an exercise program minimizes adverse forces on joints, produces less irritation to soft tissues, and is lighter than heavy significant resistance training, thus improving muscle endurance.[4]
Figure 2: Comparison of muscular endurance pre- and post-intervention. Interpretation: the muscular endurance for sit-ups and push-ups of Group A improved from 10.2 ± 4.17 to 17.2 ± 4.9 and 13.47 ± 4.19 to 19.93 ± 4.79, respectively, as compared to Group B whose values were 9 ± 4.17 to 10.13 ± 2.9 and 11.67 ± 2.6 to 12.53 ± 3.2, respectively, P < 0.001

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Furthermore, Group A underwent exercise program that included sprint running, cycle ergometer, stairstepping, step touch, and skipping exercises. There was a change in values from pre- to post intervention showing improvement in aerobic capacity, which reflects improved potency of the steps in the oxygen transport pathway to adapt to increased oxygen demands imposed by exercise stress [Figure 3]. Their adaptation is effected by both central and peripheral changes. Such aerobic conditioning exercises are characterized by an increased stroke volume and increased oxygen extraction capacity of the working muscle. These adaptations result in an increased maximal oxygen uptake that is VO2 max.[8]
Figure 3: Comparison of aerobic performance pre- and post-intervention. Interpretation: the aerobic performance of Group A improved from 40.91 ± 7.3 to 47.31 ± 7.2 as compared to Group B 39.26 ± 7.3 to 40.16 ± 5.9, P < 0.001

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Escobar Molina, Raquel reported that aerobic capacity enables the fighter to support a high volume of technical-tactical training and accelerates recovery because fatigue is a limiting factor for performance and therefore determines success in the judo combat.[9]


  Conclusion Top


It is concluded that physiotherapy exercise program showed a significant improvement in grip strength, muscular endurance, and aerobic capacity measured through a hand dynamometer and YMCA 3-min step test in judo players.

Acknowledgment

I am glad to present this research here. I would like to thank God almighty and my parents for their constant support throughout the research. I would also give a special thanks to my guide Dr. Ujwal Yeole, for allowing me to do this research under his guidance. His advices and counseling at every stage of the research have made this a successful one.

Financial support and sponsorship

Self.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Franchini E, Del Vecchio FB, Matsushigue KA, Artioli GG. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes. Sports Med 2011;41:147-66.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Zaggelidis G, Lazaridis S. Muscle activation profiles of lower extremities in different throwing techniques and in jumping performance in elite and novice Greek judo athletes. J Hum Kinet 2013;37:63-70.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Detanico D, Arins FB, Dal Pupo J, Dos Santos SG. Strength parameters in judo athletes: An approach using hand dominance and weight categories. Human Movement 2012;13:330-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kisner C, Colby L. Therapeutic Exercise Foundation and Techniques. 5th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Baquet G, van Praagh E, Berthoin S. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people. Sports Med 2003;33:1127-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pienaar AE, Kemp C. Effect of an aerobic-based physical activity programme on physical fitness of 10-15 year-old girls. Afr J Phys Health Educ Recreat Dance 2009;15:527-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Franchini E, Sterkowicz Przybycien K, Yuri Takito M. anthropometrical profile of judo athletes: Comparative analysis between weight categories. Int J Morphol 2014;32:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Pryor J, Webber B. Physiotherapy for Respiratory and Cardiac Problem. 2nd ed. London, UK: Stevenson R; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Molina RE, Ríos IC, Luque GT, Hernández G, León MT, Miranda BF, Fernández- training in the mesocycle in the performance in judokas. Kinesiology 2009;9:170-80.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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