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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 129-133

Relation between dermatoglyphic patterns and intelligence quotient and socioeconomic status in healthy children and children with intellectual disability: An observational study


1 Professor, HOD, Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Senior lecturer, AME's Dental College and Hospital, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Raichur, Karnataka, India
3 HOD, Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission06-May-2020
Date of Decision10-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance19-Jan-2021
Date of Web Publication18-May-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S V S G Nirmala
Professor and HOD, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_96_20

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  Abstract 


AIM: To measure the intelligence quotient (IQ) and documentation of dermatoglyphic patterns of normal and children with intellectually disability aged between the 5-11 years.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in two schools and the Red Cross Society. A total of 100 children aged between 5-11 years equally owed into two groups based on IQ using adaptive covariate randomization. Ravens Progressive Color Matrices were used to measure IQ of the children, whereas IQ of intellectually disabled (ID) children was measured by the Seguin board; both the scales are nonverbal intelligence scales, respectively. Bilateral palmar and fingerprints were obtained on the bond paper by the ink method using the rolling technique. Prints thus purchased were analyzed for the dermatoglyphic variables using a magnification lens and are read based on Cummins and Midlo classification The children were also classified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and whether any correlation exists between IQ and socioeconomic status exists was assessed. The analysis performed by using the crosstabs and Chi-square tests for fingertip patterns and creases. For ATD angle, (a, t, d Triradii Angle) t-test for the equality of means performed. For statistical significance, two-tailed probability values of <0.05 considered as significant.
RESULTS: Among the children with below-average IQ and also the ID children difference in dermatoglyphic patterns exists in between digits I, II, IV, and V of the right hand and digits I, II, III, and V of the left side.
CONCLUSION: Dermatoglyphics can consider as a preliminary noninvasive approach for the determination of IQ. Furthermore, it plays an imperative role, especially in distinguishing genetic intellectual disabilities. There was no association between socioeconomic status and IQ of children.

Keywords: Children, dermatoglyphics, fingertip patterns, intellectually disabled, intelligence quotient


How to cite this article:
Nirmala S V, Tharay N, Nuvvula S. Relation between dermatoglyphic patterns and intelligence quotient and socioeconomic status in healthy children and children with intellectual disability: An observational study. Int J Health Allied Sci 2021;10:129-33

How to cite this URL:
Nirmala S V, Tharay N, Nuvvula S. Relation between dermatoglyphic patterns and intelligence quotient and socioeconomic status in healthy children and children with intellectual disability: An observational study. Int J Health Allied Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 5];10:129-33. Available from: https://www.ijhas.in/text.asp?2021/10/2/129/316297




  Introduction Top


Dermatoglyphics, also known as epidermal ridge configurations, is an integral part of forensic odontology and has multiple applications as science in the various fields such as criminology, anthropology, cytogenetic studies, and also in dentistry.[1] The measurement of intelligence is one of the most attributed achievements in the field of psychology. Intelligence quotient (IQ) level has a very significant effect on individuals and their role placed in the society.[2]

IQ and dermatoglyphics share the same origin, as both neural tissue and epidermis are embryonic ectodermal derivatives, and the critical period of their respective embryological fetal development takes place during the second trimester of intrauterine life. As the dermatoglyphic characteristics do not change throughout one's life, the presence of abnormalities in the patterned traceries of beautiful ridges in fingers and palms may constitute evidence of a prenatal insult during the early periods of pregnancy.[3],[4]

As they take the same origin in the intrauterine life, it could be beneficial, if dermatoglyphic variables can estimate IQ range. Moreover, it is easier to record the dermatoglyphic patterns than measuring IQ. Hence, the present study aims to compare the dermatoglyphic patterns and the IQ of normal and intellectually disabled (ID) children of the same age range with the same IQ, i.e., healthy children with the same IQ as of ID ones.


  Materials and Methods Top


Ethical clearance

The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee, and informed consent obtained from the school authorities for the examination of children.

The study was conducted in the schools, the Red Cross, and special care homes present in City Corporation limits. Schools were selected purposively to include children with normal IQ, whereas the Red Cross Society to include ID children (purposive nonradom sampling).

Sample size

The sample size estimated by taking 95% power and 5% margin of error (1-ß), and a total of 100 children considered as an appropriate sample size to fulfil the purpose of the study.

Eligibility criteria

Inclusion criteria

  1. Individuals with informed consent by the institutions
  2. Individuals with various intelligence levels, including ID.


Exclusion criteria

  1. Individuals with visually impaired, upper limb disabilities, and negative behavior.


Determination of intelligence quotient

The IQ of healthy children was measured using Raven's colored progressive matrices, a nonverbal intelligence that consists of 36 questions arranged in three sets, namely A, AB, and B sets, each consisting of 12 questions. The child instructed to select the missing part in each question among the six options given under each question. The raw data obtained were converted into IQ scores according to Indian norms.

The IQ of ID children was also measured using the Seguin board, which is a standard form board. It consists of ten geometrical figures – semi-circle, triangle, cross, elongated hexagon, rectangular, circle, square, flattened oval, star, and lozenge shapes, as nearly uniform in size, cut through an oak board of size 18 × 12 × 1.5 inches. The child gave three trials to replace the blocks in position, and the shortest time, take into consideration. The shortest time converted into the mental age, according to Indian Norms. The IQ then calculated using the following formulae: IQ = MENTAL AGE/CHRONOLOGICAL AGE × 100.

Based on IQ scores, the participants were divided into three groups as:

  • Group I – Participants with IQ higher than 120
  • Group II – Participants with IQ between 70 and 120
  • Group III – Participants with IQ <70.


Recording of dermatoglyphic patterns

Bilateral palmar and fingerprints of the children were obtained on the bond papers using the ink method. Before recording patterns, it is necessary to remove sweat, oil, or dirt from the skin surface of hands to increase the quality of prints. This was done by cleaning the hands with soap and water and wiping with a cloth. The dried palms of the children placed on the ink pad with mild pressure, and the excess ink wiped off with the help of a gauze piece. Then, the bilateral palmar prints recorded by placing the palm on the paper with moderate pressure and also the individual fingertip prints of both the hands recorded separately in the same manner as the palmar prints marked using the rolling technique on the same paper. The unclear prints discarded, and the prints repeated until bright prints obtained. After recording the dermatoglyphic patterns, the palms and fingers of the child gently wiped with cotton damped with ethyl alcohol followed by washing the hands with Dettol solution and water. Prints thus obtained were analyzed for the following parameters using a magnification of power × 2 and are read based on Cummins and Midlo classification for fingertip patterns and by Bali and Chaube 1971 classification for palmar flexion creases. The children were also classified into different socioeconomic status as per the Kuppuswamy classification[5] to check if socioeconomic status affects the IQ of the child [Table 1].
Table 1: Representation of socioeconomic status and intelligence quotient

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A single calibrated examiner recorded the IQ of all the children. In contrast, dermatoglyphics patterns of palm and fingers recorded by the examiner with the help of two assistants.

Statistical analysis

The data were entered in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet 2010. Crosstabs used for fingertip patterns and creases. For the ATD angle, (a, t, d Triradii Angle) t-test for equality of means performed. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.


  Results Top


Demographic data

The boys and the girls are in the ratio of 47:53 with a mean age of 6.48.

Digit I

When healthy children's fingertip patterns compared with ID children, analysis of the right digit, I showed that healthy children had a high number of arches (A), ulnar loops (UL), whorls (W) compared with statistically significant ID children (P < 0.001). When the left digit, I was analyzed, the prevalence of UL and W was high for healthy children (P < 0.001). Solely, when significant fingertip pattern is considered on the right and left side, right UL (ULR) (P < 0.001), left UL (P = 0.003), right whorls (P < 0.001), and left whorls (P < 0.001) were found to be statistically significant [Table 2].
Table 2: Analysis of fingertip patterns and intelligence quotient

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Digit II

Right digit II on analysis showed that healthy children had a high number of RL, UL, and W compared with ID children, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001). When left digit II was analyzed, healthy children had a high number of A, UL, and RL (P < 0.001). When significant fingertip pattern was considered on the right and left side, right A (P < 0.001), left U (P < 0.001), and left W (P < 0.001) found to be statistically significant [Table 2].

Digit III

Comparing left digit III revealed that healthy children had a high number of UL and W compared with ID children, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001). Statistical analysis for right digit III was not significant (P > 0.05). When significant fingertip pattern was deliberated on the right and left side, left A (P < 0.001) and UL (P < 0.001) were found to be statistically significant [Table 2].

Digit IV

Right digit IV on analysis showed that healthy children had a high number of A, UL, and W compared with ID children, which is statistically significant (P = 0.04). Left digit IV analysis was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). When significant fingertip pattern was considered on the right and left sides, ULR (P = 0.04) and W (P < 0.001) found to be statistically significant [Table 2].

Digit V

When healthy children's fingertip patterns were compared with ID children, analysis of the right digit, I showed that healthy children had a high number of RL, UL, W compared with ID children, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001). When left digit, I was analyzed. The prevalence of UL and W was high for healthy children (P < 0.001). Exclusively, when the significant fingertip pattern was considered on the right and left sides, ULR (P = 0.006), left UL (P = 0.003), right W (P < 0.001), and left A (P < 0.001) found to be statistically significant [Table 2].

Analysis of the creases

Among the total sample of 100 participants, two types of pleats found, i.e., double radial base crease and broken crease. On analysis, 99 items had double radial base crease, whereas only one had broken ridges, but the difference not statistically significant (P > 0.05) [Table 3].
Table 3: T-test for equality of means

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Quantitative analysis

Analysis of ATD angle

ATD angle has compared by the unpaired t-test and was statistically significant (P < 0.02) [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 4: Analysis of palmar flexion creases

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  Discussion Top


Ubiquitous interest in the study of epidermal ridges increased only in the last several decades when it became apparent that many patients with chromosomal aberrations had unusual ridge formations.[6]

Dermatoglyphics has the advantage of remaining stable throughout life, and therefore, can be compared among the individuals of different ages. Hence, the hand had recognized as a powerful tool in the diagnosis of psychological, medical, and genetic conditions through the decades of scientific research. It is proved to be a helpful adjunct to other diagnostic methods in identifying the specific syndromes of genetic origin.[7]

Support for this correlation came from the observations that a significant proportion of learning difficulties in genetically inherited syndromes like trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), Fragile X syndrome, other chromosomal disorders such as Angelman syndrome, Prader Willi syndrome, and Cri-du-Chat syndrome and finally some other X linked syndromes such as Coffin‐Lowry syndrome, as these syndromes have recognized as having abnormal dermatoglyphic characteristics.[2]

Furthermore, in the present study, arches are the most common finding, which is similar to the study by Rosa et al.,[8] study which described the importance of abnormal Dermatoglyphics as the marker of prenatal disturbance in learning difficulties of unknown etiology. A simple fingerprint pattern and increased radial loops, and arches, an unusual pattern, have been found in children, particularly boys, with learning difficulties more frequently than the healthy controls. A significant increase in abnormal flexion creases also identified in individuals with learning difficulties. The finding of irregular palmar flexion creases is similar to the present study. However, it conveys that these creases are associated with learning disabilities accompanying with chromosomal abnormalities, especially Down syndrome.

To prevent the development of risk symptoms in children with the presence of risk factors, Cvjeticanin and Polovinas suggested that palmar and fingerprints taken in the immediate postnatal period.[9] Another study by Dar et al. concluded that unusual features might indicate an “at-risk” infant if dermatoglyphy was performed during the routine examination of the new-born. The results of their study testify a specific diagnostic and prognostic value of dermatoglyphic features.[10]

In the present study, the socioeconomic status was also assessed with the IQ of the children, but no association with respect to each other was seen.

Therefore, dermatoglyphics can use as an adjunct in the estimation of IQ, which becomes a more comfortable and economical method, especially in the case of children with chromosomal abnormalities. In pediatric dentistry, it would be better if we apply behavior guidance techniques depending on the IQ of the child, where the child can understand and accepts the treatment procedure.

The limitation of the present study includes the unequal distribution of the sample in the groups between the children with learning disabilities and mental retardation. And also, the gender-based differences were not evaluated in the present study.


  Conclusion Top


Among the children with below-average IQ and also the ID children difference in dermatoglyphic patterns exists in between digits I, II, IV, and V of the right hand and digits I, II, III, and V of the left side. When the same IQ considered, the difference in dermatoglyphic patterns can help in the differentiation of ID children from normal ones. Hence, dermatoglyphics can be a preliminary noninvasive approach for the determination of IQ. Furthermore, in the present study, the socioeconomic status was also assessed with the IQ of the children, but we could not gather any association with respect to each other.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Aronson J. When I use a word fingerprints. Br Med J 1997;315:7113.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Najafi M. Association between finger patterns of digit II and intelligence quotient level in adolescence. Iran J Pediatr 2009;19:277-84.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Martín B, Fañanás L, Gutiérrez B, Chow EW, Bassett AS. Dermatoglyphic profile in 22q deletion syndrome. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2004;128B: 46-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Alter M. Dermatoglyphic analysis as a diagnostic tool. Medicine (Baltimore) 1967;46:35-56.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Venkatesh E, Bagewadi A, Keluskar V, Shetti A. Palmar dermatoglyphics in oralleukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2008;20:94-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.
Kumar N, Gupta N, Kishore J. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012. Indian J Public Health 2012;56:103-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.
Schaumann B, Alter M. Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders. New York: Springer Verlag; 1976.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Rosa A, Gutiérrez B, Guerra A, Arias B, Fañanás L. Dermatoglyphics and abnormal palmar flexion creases as markers of early prenatal stress in children with idiopathic intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res 2001;45:416-23.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Cvjeticanin M, Polovina A. Quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphics in male children with central nervous system lesion by quantification of clinical parameters of locomotor disorder. Acta Med Croatica 1999;53:5-10.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Dar H, Bolchinsky D, Jaffe M, Winter ST. Routine analysis of dermatoglyphics and palmar creases in children with developmental disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol 1978;20:735-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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