International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences

CASE REPORT
Year
: 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 263--266

Effect of integrative naturopathy and yoga therapies in patient with metabolic syndrome


A Mooventhan1, Geetha B Shetty2,  
1 Department of Research and Development, S-VYASA University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Acupuncture, SDM College of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences, Ujire, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
A Mooventhan
Department of Research and Development, S.VYASA University, #19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram Circle, Kempegowda Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India

Abstract

A 40-year-married man diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS) in 2013 and underwent allopathic medication. In July 2014, he visited our college hospital with the complaint of gradual increasing of body weight since 12 years and generalized weakness and knee pain since 1-year. Our subject received integrative naturopathy and yoga therapies (INYT) for the duration of 60–90 min and 120-min/day, respectively, for the period of 3 weeks along with the human mixed insulin and candesartan. Baseline and post assessment of weight, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin intake, blood glucose level, blood pressure, and lipid profile were assessed before and after the intervention. The result of our study showed a better reduction in all the variables. All the treatments were tolerable, and no adverse event was reported by the subject. It suggests that the INYT with insulin and antihypertensive medication can be considered as an effective treatment modalities in a patient with MS.



How to cite this article:
Mooventhan A, Shetty GB. Effect of integrative naturopathy and yoga therapies in patient with metabolic syndrome.Int J Health Allied Sci 2015;4:263-266


How to cite this URL:
Mooventhan A, Shetty GB. Effect of integrative naturopathy and yoga therapies in patient with metabolic syndrome. Int J Health Allied Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Aug 12 ];4:263-266
Available from: https://www.ijhas.in/text.asp?2015/4/4/263/167658


Full Text

 Introduction



Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) accounts for 12–17% and 30–52% of the population attributable risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, respectively.[1] Use of yoga,[2],[3],[4] and naturopathy/complementary and alternative therapies such as hydrotherapy,[2],[5] massage,[2] and diet therapy [1],[2],[6],[7] were shown to have effect on one or other components of MS. Lack of studies on integrative naturopathy and yoga therapies (INYT) on all components of MS made us to present this particular case study.

 Case Report



A 40-year-married man diagnosed with MS in 2013, according to National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III, 2001 criteria and International Diabetes Foundation criteria,[6] and underwent allopathic medication. In 2009, he was diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus type-2 during routine medical check-up and underwent metformin. In 2012, his blood glucose levels were not under control by metformin alone. Hence, underwent 30-unit of human mixed insulin twice a day along with metformin. In 2013, he was diagnosed as having hypertension and hyperlipidemia and underwent candesartan, gemfibrozil, and simvastatin. In July 2014, he visited our hospital with the complaint of gradual increasing of body weight since 12-year, generalized weakness and mild bilateral knee pain since 1-year. He was undergoing metformin, gemfibrozil, candesartan, simvastatin, and with human mixed insulin until get admitted to our hospital. He discontinued metformine from day-1 and gemfibrozil, simvastatin from day-3 but did not report any serious adverse effects throughout the study period. Written informed consent was obtained from the subject.

Treatments

A detail of treatment was given in [Table 1].{Table 1}

Outcome measures

The following assessments were done before and after the intervention [Table 2].{Table 2}

Height

Height was measured in centimeter (cm) by using standard measuring tape.

Weight

Weight was measured in kilogram (kg) by using a digital electronic weighing scale (DS-415, Essae-Teraoka Ltd., India).

Body mass index

It was assessed by using "weight in kg/height in meter (m) 2."

Waist circumference

It was ascertained as the midway between the lower limit of the rib cage and the iliac crest in cm by using standard measuring tape.

Blood glucose level

Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) were assessed daily by using Freestyle Optium blood glucose and ketone monitor, USA.

Blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed daily in sitting position on a single occasion using standard mercury sphygmomanometer with the cuff on the right upper arm.

Lipid profile

Lipid profile was assessed by using CKK-24 Versatile Boi-chemistry Analyzer, Bengaluru, India.

 Result and Discussion



Abnormal/elevated levels of weight, body mass index, waist circumference (WC), FBG, PPBG, SBP, DBP, and lipid profile are the major characteristics of MS,[6] whereas results of this study showed better reduction in all those variables along with reduction in insulin intake [Table 2].

Obesity is the driving force and insulin resistance is the primary pathophysiologic mechanism for MS. Thus, weight reduction is the primary approach, which was done in this study. With weight reduction, improvement in insulin sensitivity is often accompanied by favorable modifications in many components of MS.[6] In this study, reduction in insulin intake and FBG, PPBG, and triglycerides levels indicates reduction in insulin resistance/improvement in insulin sensitivity. This effect might possibly through reduction in weight, WC, stress, and sympathetic activity by INYT because its elevated levels were reported to contribute in the pathogenesis of MS.[3]

The following reports of previous studies help in understanding the possible mechanism for the results of this study. Yoga is safe and widely used in obesity,[4] hypertension, diabetes, and related chronic insulin resistance conditions.[3] Regular practice of yoga has shown to improve lipid profile, pancreatic B-cells sensitivity to glucose signal, insulin sensitivity, and decrease the need for oral hypoglycemic drugs. It also reported to decrease heart rate, SBP, and DBP possibly through direct vagal stimulation, restoration of baroreceptor sensitivity, and reducing perceived stress and anxiety.[4] In MS the adiponectin (anti-inflammatory cytokine), which enhances insulin sensitivity is reduced, and serum lipids are increased,[6] whereas yoga reported to improve adiponectin, serum lipids, and MS risk factors [8] that helps to reduce insulin resistance and its associated conditions.[4]

Hot tub therapy [2] and warm water immersion [5] were reported to reduce weight, glucose level, and glycosylated hemoglobin; reduction in heart rate, and increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular functions, respectively [5] but caution should be taken to prevent burning in neuropathy.[2] Sauna therapy was reported to improves endothelial function, endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, cardiac function, peripheral circulation, total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols concentrations. But care must be taken during sauna to avoid burns and severe heat stroke by careful monitoring of patients.[5] In a previous study gastrohepatic pack was shown to have effective in reducing blood glucose levels.[9]

Stress reducing the effect of massage might attribute to control counterregulatory stress hormones and permitting the body to use insulin more effectively.[2] Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokines, increased in MS and contribute to its pathogenesis, whereas mudpack therapy reported to reduce it, leading to an anti-inflammatory effect.[10]

Diet is one of the key modifiable risk factors, involve in prevention, and treatment of MS.[1] It was established that reduction in total energy intake, diets with high fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and low-sodium intake were associated to decreased weight and BP which is supporting the results of this study.[7]Momordicacharantia (bitter gourd) and Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) were reported to have antidiabetic and lipid lowering effect. The possible mechanisms could be through repairing damaged β-cells, stimulating insulin secretion and sensitivity/signaling, inhibiting absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and suppressing the activity of disaccharidases in intestine, and decreasing adipose tissues [11] thereby reduces proinflamatory cytokines.[6]

Weight gain is one of the most common side effect of insulin [2] which was reduced in this study. Hence, INYT might be used to reduce insulin adverse effects. Limitations of our study are, we did not assess the level of insulin, adipose tissue, adiponectin, TNF-α, and heart rate variability for better understating. Validity and reliability of our result might vary because of a single case. The subject was not followed up to see whether or not these effects were sustained. Hence, further studies are required to large sample size to validate our results.

 Conclusion



Results of our study suggest that INYT with insulin and anti-hypertensive medication can be considered as effective treatment modalities in a patient with MS.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Almoosawi S, Prynne CJ, Hardy R, Stephen AM. Time-of-day and nutrient composition of eating occasions: Prospective association with the metabolic syndrome in the 1946 British birth cohort. Int J Obes (Lond) 2013;37:725-31.
2Pandey A, Tripathi P, Pandey R, Srivatava R, Goswami S. Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2011;3:504-12.
3Innes KE, Bourguignon C, Taylor AG. Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: A systematic review. J Am Board Fam Pract 2005;18:491-519.
4Sengupta P. Health Impacts of Yoga and Pranayama: A State-of-the-Art Review. Int J Prev Med 2012;3:444-58.
5Mooventhan A, Nivethitha L. Scientific evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems of the body. N Am J Med Sci 2014;6:199-209.
6Eckel RH. The metabolic syndrome. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2012. p. 1992-7.
7Fonseca MJ, Gaio R, Lopes C, Santos AC. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese adults. Nutr J 2012;11:64.
8Lee JA, Kim JW, Kim DY. Effects of yoga exercise on serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women. Menopause 2012;19:296-301.
9Dinesh S, Gangadhara-Varma BR. Immediate hypoglycaemic effect of two selective hydrotherapeutic procedures in non insulin dependent patients of diabetes mellitus. J Res Educ Indian Med 2014;20:45-9.
10Bostan B, Sen U, Günes T, Sahin SA, Sen C, Erdem M, et al. Comparison of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and mud-pack therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2010;44:42-7.
11Rizvi SI, Mishra N. Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Res 2013;2013:712092.